In the beginning of chapter four, The Typographic Mind, Neil Postman delivers an impressive narrative argument about the impact of print information culture on 17th and 19th century minds. Postman makes a few claims with respect to the contrasts between the written and spoken word. In this essay, there are four qualities of the typographic mind: attention span, listening ability, knowledge of issues, and literary language.
Imagine yourself shipwrecked upon an uninhabited island. The experience of being stranded will cause you to pose many questions, with the possibility of only one of those questions to being answered. One answered question is: what is the purpose of literature? Northrop Frye, within “Motive for Metaphor”, uses the analogy of being within an uninhabited island to examines the purpose of literature by connecting it to the purposes of language and their use within the different worlds and levels of the mind Frye sees present.
He views this shift from the Age of Typography (text-based communication) to the Age of Show Business (image-based communication) as a profoundly problematic and troubling phenomenon. By this he means that finding meaningful content is no longer as simple as it was when text was all we had to contend with. “Now, there are so many things to distract and delight us, it takes even more discipline to examine through the overwhelming abundance of stimuli” (Postman). Information has become a product valuable for being a novelty and form of entertainment rather than for being important towards informing the public.
Postman was able to incorporate all three of these devices into his book, but the most prominent one in my opinion is, and that helps to best convey Postman's point is Logos. Logos is using logics and facts. Two things you very rarely can fight against. Over and over Postman uses facts on how the media is basically dumbing us down. An example would be
Lakoff and Johnson state, “[w]e have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action” (3). They are saying that metaphors are used all the time and not just when people talk, but when they think and in what they do. This is exactly true because after learning about metaphors, and getting a better understanding of them, I have realized how much I, and others, apply them to everyday life without even realizing it, or trying to. Using a metaphor to describe Haas and Flower’s reading concepts will therefore make for a better grasp of what the concepts mean.
Even though Haas and Flower do not mention George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, or even metaphors, in their article, I will be using metaphors to get a better understanding of what these reading strategies are like. Lakoff and Johnson’s analytical tools and ideas about metaphors (, seen in Metaphors We Live By, help me, and others,
In Annie Dillard’s “Chapter One” of The Writing Life, she uses metaphors to explain the process of writing. She links words to tools, specifically a hammer that someone uses to
In the first chapter of the book, “The Motive for Metaphor”, Frye starts off the book by using a vivid scene of an uninhabited island to illustrate three levels of the human mind and the language for each of them and further explore the use of imagination in literature. Frye then discusses the distinction between the arts and the sciences as “science begins with the world we have to live in, accepting its data and trying to explain its laws” (p23) while “art begins with the world we construct, not the world we see”.(p23) By shedding light on the fundamental difference, Frye argues that literature begins in the imaginative world and stresses his point of an unprogressive literature world even though imagination has no limits.
In the essay “Reading and Thought”, Dwight MacDonlad talked about the kind of poor reading people are attached to in modern society. MacDonald believed reading materials such as Times and New York Times are too overwhelming for the readers. Readers tend to skim through the reading materials because most of the reading do not have any connections with their daily lives. Moreover, MacDoanld claimed that the readings people do these days are not thoughtful. The readings are rather irrelevant toward the readers. It is because the journalists to produce dull pieces of readings which are meant to be skimmed through without having too much thoughts involved. As the journalists do not have much consideration of the materials they produced. To the journalists the readings they produce are just a series of news that should be read driftly and left behind with no thoughful idea needed to be informed. These effects caused modern society to have a poor reading habits because people do not reflect and give time to think about the readings they did. Readers casually accept the readings even though they do not have provide any resourceful information for the readers.
Wilbur makes frequent use of imagery in “The Writer.” He uses metaphors extensively – for instance, calling “the stuff / Of her life is … great cargo, … some of it heavy”.
“The experience of abuse and trauma is overwhelming emotional pain that threatens the soul and avoids all rationalization.” (Dr. Bill) ‘Speak’, a novel by Laurie Halse Anderson helps you consider how others actions could permanently damage someone’s future and mindset. Melinda Sordino’s past peers incidentally haunt her, making her feel damaged and ghostly. Melinda’s thoughts altered making her think that her speech negatively affects everyone, which is the result of Melinda’s schoolmates bullying her, making her struggle in being positive. Students at Melinda’s school make her feel isolated and even unable to deliver speech by having unhealthy thoughts about herself, resulting in Melinda feeling dirty and cold. Furthermore, throughout the school year, Melinda’s past distress obstructs her maturation process.
In our world of advanced technology, we love to watch movies more than we love to read. Sitting in front of a flat-screen TV while eating popcorn and drinking soda would sound much more appealing than reading a book by the fire at night while drinking a frappucino from Starbucks. Now, producers and directors would take successful and famous stories and adapt it into a movie. Sometimes, they would succeed, with examples being the Harry Potter series, which received mainly positive reviews from both critics and the audience. However, most of the time these people would unknowingly butcher the book based movie by taking out many important characters and events, with good examples being The Lightning Thief and Eragon. Then another example of a
Barthes proceeds to portray three kinds of messages images convey: Firstly, The Linguistic Message, which is the text that requires nothing but reading and comprehending. Secondly, the denoted image, which is the denoted literal message, what is right in front of us. And lastly, The Rhetoric of The image, which is the symbolic and connoted message that requires inference and reading between the
With the constant streaming of new movies and television shows available, moviegoers tend to watch them for fun. They see an entertaining movie about conflict that sparks the sense of adventure in them. But do they really grasp what the movie can teach the viewers? With today’s society, the themes are lost in the entertainment purposes. However, books have developed to do what a movie does and so much more. In this way books give life to all people that read them.