It has been found that 12% of moderate and 26% of heavy smokers will develop a form of COPD in the later stages of life (Larsson, 2007). These statistic are shown to increase significantly as those who smoke age with approximately 50% of smokers diagnosed with COPD by the age of 75 (Larsson, 2007). It has been found that 90% of chronic bronchitis patients have developed the disease because of a long-standing history of tobacco smoking (TXT). Other important factors include air pollution, occupational hazards, advanced age, airway hyper-responsiveness, diet, alcohol consumption and heredity (Edelman et al., 1992). Although mortality rates for COPD have decreased due to the progression of medical care, COPD currently has one of the highest mortality rates throughout the developed world (Viegi et al., 2001). It currently ranks as the third highest burden of disease in Australasia and the ninth highest worldwide (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2013). The number of people with COPD is predicted to rapidly increase globally over the coming decades as the tobacco epidemic continues (Viegi et al. 2001). COPD also places a large economic burden on the world with the costs of treatment and care as well as the days of work lost (Viegi et al. 2001).
I do feel that counselors should advocate for psychotropic medications when warranted. As an elementary school teacher I have seen the great potential of prescribing medications. But I also have seen some not so positive effects. There are often times medications are prescribed to children with ADHD in the school setting to increase productivity in the classroom. Yet when I see those same children in other settings within the school environment I’m often a little scared. I’m not sure if it’s an effect of inaccurate dosing or a general effect of the medications. When I see a child in a setting such as recess activities when they should be particularly active and they appear distant or not themselves my opinion of medication often waivers. I
1. What research question did the paper address? This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between the puff size (while smoking a cigarette) and the amount of nicotine being inhaled. The researchers wanted to see if there was compensation in puff volume, for the reduced nicotine yields. To provide an unbiased study, the yields and characteristics of tar, carbon monoxide, taste, and draw were all the same, while the nicotine content varied with different participants. There were high, medium, and low nicotine yields, with 24 participants, 14 male and 10 female. The study was done after an 8-10 period of abstaining from smoking.
Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of death in the United States. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Cigarette smoking causes more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United States, which are nearly one in five deaths. The problem about smoking is that
Usable lifetime consumption data were available for 118 of the 153 WP-only smokers, and 91 of the 103 cigarette-only smokers. Total hours of lifetime consumption was dichotomized at meaningful cut points for the dose response analysis as follows: WP hours were dichotomized into 78 hours and less versus greater than 78 hours. Seventy-eight hours corresponded to approximately two (2) WPs per week for one year. Lifetime cigarette hours were dichotomized at 730 hours or less versus greater than 730 hours. This cut point corresponded to approximately two (2) packs of cigarettes per week for one year. These cut points divided the cases into approximately even group sizes. The numbers of WP-only smokers were 58 and 60 for low and high doses, respectively.
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and recognized as a growing public health concern. Exposure to tobacco smoke either through active smoking or by secondhand smoke can cause and/or exacerbate an asthma attack or asthma symptoms (Californian Environmental Protection Agency [Cal EPA, 2006]). In a person with asthma, exposure to cigarette smoke can initiate and worsens asthma by irritating the airways to cause asthma symptoms (World Health Organization [WHO, 2010]). The impact of Asthma is not limited to those with the disease, but also affect their family members, friends, schools and businesses (WHO, 2010).
According to archaeological studies, cigarettes are wild plants in the Americas from around 8,000 years ago. About 2,000 years earlier cigarettes were chew and attracted by Native Americans, especially as at religious ceremonies. The first European to discover the main tobacco was Christopher Columbus, who discovered America in the late
Smoking is injurious to health and a preventable cause of premature death. In the U.S.; it is estimated that one in each five adults smoke currently and about 480,000 people die prematurely from diseases caused by smoking or secondhand smoke exposure. (CDC tobacco use). The economic burden of tobacco use is also significant. About $100 billion per year is spent in medical expenses and another $100 billion per year in lost productivity. There is no safe level of smoking
Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, causing many diseases, and reducing the overall health of an individual (Lidia Arcavi & Neal L. Benowitz, 2004). The effects of smoking start out in the respiratory system where smoke irritates the trachea and larynx which leads to reduced lung function
Surveys were sent to 35,000 male British doctors documenting their smoking habit, then repeatedly thereafter. They check the amount of people who have died over 50 years and results were issued and for the next 50 years. In 1956 Lung cancer deaths from smoking was had a higher loss of life than non-smokers, heavy smokers had a higher chance of getting lung cancer than light smokers. Cigarette smokers had a higher chance of life then pipe smokers. Smokers who continue to smoke have a high loss of life when compared to people who give
While many e-cigarette Schaller et al, they had different results of nicotine exposures. The results of e-cigarettes’ nicotine exposure were similar, the average nicotine exposure being 13.56% of the conventional cigarette. However, they identified some metals with higher, lower, and same level. Four metals like sodium, iron, aluminum, and nickels were detected higher. While other two metals, potassium, and zinc were at a lower level than the conventional cigarettes (GCRC 10-11). The experts used the number of substances in the mist of vapor from e-cigarettes as a measurement to conduct this study. While being supported by the German Cancer Research Center, a group of experts performed the sample study to measure the secondary exposure by the e-cigarettes (GCRC 1-2).
That ungodly numbers has been directly correlated with the use of cigarettes and/or second-hand smoke inhalation and the long/short term effects in has on the body.
This assignment it will explain the health risks of what smoking can cause, it will also include up to date statics that are related to smoking.
While cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, people still do it. The estimated amount of deaths every year is 438,000 because of the harmful effects of cigarette smoke. Tobacco smoke contains seven thousand chemical compounds. Smoking for as few as five years can have a permanent effect on many vital organs in the human body. Cigarette smoking is the cause of at least twenty-five diseases including, lung and other cancers, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), acute respiratory illnesses, and adverse reproductive effects. Bad breath, coughing, wheezing, and respiratory infections are symptoms that come along with smoking. A person who smokes lives thirteen to fifteen
It is generally believed that tobacco, which is smoked by a numerous people mostly men, is pernicious. Firstly, most of people often smoking have stained teeth, for tobacco has tar, a chemical that coats their teeth lending them a yellowish tinge, and a terrible breath, caused by its residue covering smoker’s roof of the mouth. Secondly, tobacco is known to can cause cancer, not only lung cancer but also it can lead to cancer of nose, mouth, trachea, stomach, kidneys, bone marrow, blood and more than that because there are more than 41,000 chemicals, in which a large percentage are known to cause cancer, in cigarettes. Thirdly, the manifold of chemicals in tobacco is predicted to that many of them remain in people’s lung after smoking and all