The belief that various living organisms emerged from previous organisms throughout the history of the earth can be associated with the term evolution. One can therefore assume that there is a vast likelihood that prehistoric evolutionary processes have a significant impact on human behavior today. This paper hypothesizes that the human mind has information-processing mechanisms that are known as adaptions which have developed over time. It is believed that these adaptions were formed by natural selection in ancestral surroundings and have specialised functions that shape behaviour to allow one to solve specific adaptive challenges. Thus evolutionary psychologists suggest that individuals have what Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides, and John
Evolutionary psychology is the study of universal human nature, or the sex specific male human nature and female human nature. Human nature consists of domain-specific evolved psychological mechanisms. A psychological mechanism is an information-processing procedure which evolution by natural and sexual selection has equipped humans to possess in order to solve an adaptive problem, such as: survival and reproduction. Psychological mechanisms mostly operate behind our conscious thinking. Evolved psychological mechanisms produce values and preferences, which performers then pursue within their constraints; they also engender emotions.
When looking through animal history, we humans have praised ourselves for our exceptional ability to communicate in an advanced manner. Whether we are listening or speaking, humans have crafted language into a powerful tool that is boundless and flexible against other arts. Moreover, through the perspective of building civilizations, communication has been the foundation of community. As Language is our most advanced form of communication; to what degree of value do we hold it in our society? Throughout the seminars, groups of people explored the history and significance of how we perceive language and the hidden advantages or disadvantages it provides.
In August 2011, Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biologist and a Professor and head of the Evolutionary Biology Group at the University of Reading, gave his “How Language Transformed Humanity”
Ideas in psychology have been influenced by many fields of study ranging from philosophy to physics. Evolutionary ideas, themselves, have had a substantial role in shaping psychological thought. This paper will provide an overview of the influence of evolutionary thought on the field of psychology along with a discussion of the range of societal implications associated with evolutionary psychology.
Language is a communicative system of words and symbols unique to humans. The origins of language are still a mystery as fossil remains cannot speak. However, the rudiments of language can be inferred through studying linguistic development in children and the cognitive and communicative abilities of primates as discussed by Bridgeman (2003). This essay illustrates the skills infants have that will eventually help them to acquire language. The topics covered are firstly, the biological aspects, the contribution of the human brain to language development? Secondly, key theories of language development will be considered. Is the development innate? Is there a critical period? Thirdly, what must be learned? What are the rudiments infants must
To study the evolution of human behavior, we must first understand the evolutionary foundation of modern human behavior. Using the knowledge we have about human behavior while observing for patterns that are consistent with evolutionary models. Taking advantage of natural experiments that produce different combinations of variables that can allows us to obtain new approach on human behavior. This chapter will focus on various aspects of human behavior from an evolutionary viewpoint. These involve the “ecology and demography of traditional human societies, patters of human behavior that have been shaped by sexual selection, the interaction between culture and biology in the expression of language, and the emergence of behavioral disease in an
The claim, humans are the only animal that can acquire language has been the subject of much debate as scientists have investigated language use by non-human species. Researchers have taught apes, monkeys, parrots and wild children with various systems of human-like communication. Thus, one might ask, what is human language? According to Ulla Hedeager, A universally accepted definition of language or the criteria for its use does not exist. This is one of the reasons for the disagreement among scientists about whether non-human species can use a language. In nature, researchers find numerous types of communication systems, several of which appear to be unique to their possessors, and one of them is the language of the human species. Basically, the purpose of communication is the preservation, growth, and development of the species (Smith and Miller 1968:265). The ability to exchange information is shared by all communication systems, and a number of non-human systems share some features of human language. The fundamental difference between human and non-human communication is that animals are believed to react instinctively, in a stereotyped and predictable way. Generally, human behavior is under the voluntary control,
Evolution or trade over the years takes place through the methods of natural and sexual selection. In response to troubles in our environment, we adapt each physically and psychologically to ensure our survival and replica. Sexual selection principle describes how evolution has shaped us to provide a mating advantage rather than just a survival advantage and happens via two wonderful pathways: intrasexual competition and intersexual choice. Gene choice concept, the modern rationalization behind evolutionary biology, takes place thru the desire for gene replication. Evolutionary psychology connects evolutionary ideas with present day psychology and focuses in general on mental variations: adjustments within the manner we think with the intention to enhance our survival.
Language is a vital tool for human beings. Human language is a measure for communicating thoughts, ideas, and identity to one another. Cultural relations, economic dealings, and the shaping of friendships are all dependent upon language. While it could be viewed that today’s languages are the result of past language extinctions, the death of language signifies a loss much greater than just words.
It is apparent that in our world, humans are the only species to have developed language to such a great length. However it is still unknown why, and of what cause, we created and learn language the way we do that language amongst humans is universal despite the 7,000 different languages spoken.
“What makes us human?”, is an unanswered question asked by many. Is it because of our ability to have empathy for others? Or is it because of our cognitive ability which allows us to look into the future? One of the main arguments made that separates humans from animals is our communication style; our language. Is language inherently unique to human? To answer such a question, we first operationally define language as; “a system of communication based upon words and the combination of words into sentences” (University of Oslo). The purpose of language is for us to be able to convey an infinite amount of ideas to one another. Sign language in general also falls under this definition as it has a complex system of rules and syntax that allow the signed figures to function as words. Animal communication on the other hand, is operationally defined as, “the transmission of a signal from one animal to another such that the sender benefits, on average, from the response of the recipient” (Pearce 1987). With this in mind, current research has shown that the answer is that language is inherently unique to humans.