Mussolini says that this was on purpose as the “surprise was important and he meant to claim that he was acting in self-defense”. A couple of years, in 1939, Italy invaded Albania, after Albania rejected the ultimatum that demanded that Italy’s occupation be acceded. As a result, Fascists slogans indicated that Albania should became an Italian protectorate. June 10, 1940, Italy declared war on Britain and France when it seemed as if Germany was winning the war.
Because fascism has been practiced in a variety of locations, at differing points in history, with no specific guidelines, every seemingly practical definition of fascism is simply too limiting to serve as a proper definition. Furthermore, to speak of fascism in generalizations prohibits one from truly understanding the completely confused concept. To avoid such generalizations, one must look at fascism as it was found in specific examples. Such examples include, Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany. Although these two instances are not all encompassing of the ideology, they exhibit fascism to the greatest proportions. Additionally, these instances allow one to get a vivid and practical notion to what fascism truly is.
Overall, the fascist experiment in Italy was a failure. Benito Mussolini aimed to make the world safe for the middle class, small business owners, property owners, and people in the agricultural area. Through this, Mussolini gained support of the majority of the population. There is no doubt that most of the support was actually the work of propaganda and rhetoric rather than the real thing'. The government made desperate attempts to significantly increase the birthrate in Italy. In 1927, Mussolini launched the "Battle for births". The task of young women was to get married quickly and have a lot of children. And the more children they get, the more benefits they get from the government. Mussolini's population policy failed to produce
Q6. Fascism began to rise after the fallout of World War I, this new militant political movement attracted many people who had felt angry or frustrated with the war. As you can imagine, during this time millions of people were unhappy with the turnout of World War I, many countries were on the edge of their breaking points. Countries were trying to return to the previous normal they obtained before the world had fallen into a deadly and pointless war. People were full of spitefulness and anger and they wanted answers; henceforth, the popular idea of fascism was created. Fascism was a political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism and militarism, the movement also relied heavily on the loyalty to the state and their one strong
World War II, which only lasted about five years, changed the course of history forever, and affected millions of lives. Among the major nations that were involved in the war, Benito Mussolini and his Italian army sought to settle their differences with many nations. Benito’s fascist views, his idea of a nation built by one race, and his relationship with Adolf Hitler ultimately led to his involvement in the war. His responsibility, in essence, was to ally himself with the superpowers of the world, and lead his people into a war that they could not fight.
War is inevitable, as it is simply the manifestation of the strength and vigour of the Italian people that wishes to expand itself, never looking back. Peace was considered as merely a “mask to surrender and cowardice.” Mussolini stressed that Italians required “forces, duty, and sacrifice” in order to rise again to their former greatness, that of the Roman Empire. This is also Mussolini’s rationale for harsh and severe actions against any who would resist or try and undermine fascism.
The fascists had support anywhere that either feared socialism or was nationalistic. The original support came from war veterans and the Italian army which was in general sympathetic to the cause. However as Mussolini changed the party agenda making it less extreme and right wing the backbone of fascist support arrived in the form of the petty bourgeoisie. Fascism also gained the support of the elite in Italy meaning that the party now had funding from big industrialists which it could use to secure its power. Fascism now had a strong appeal throughout Italy as it was now a respectable party not a political movement which had the support of powerful people that would enable it to crush the threat of socialism and restore the nation to its former (roman) glory. The actions of the fascists up to 1922 were the reason why Mussolini came to power or was able to seize it.
"My objective is simple. I want to make Italy great, respected and feared," (UXL Biographies 1). This was a quote from one of the most famous dictators in Italy, Benito Mussolini. Before World War One, Mussolini was director of the Avanti, a socialist newspaper in Milan, but he began to disagree with socialists so he broke ties and joined the military, reaching the rank of corporal. After he was discharged from the army, he created the fascist party and worked towards dismantling all socialist institutions (UXL Biographies 1). Mussolini was a powerful public speaker and delivered speeches mainly about how great he would make Italy. This allowed him to gain the public’s trust, leading to him becoming Prime Minister and later the dictator of Italy (UXL Biographies 1). In April 1945, Mussolini and his mistress were fleeing anti-fascist partisans disguised as German soldiers. When they were crossing the Swiss border, him and his mistress were captured by partisans and the next day were shot and killed. (Klein 1). The assassination of Benito Mussolini was justified because of he adopted Nazi ideals about Jews and he ultimately initiated the demise of his country and followers. Despite this many believe that Mussolini actually helped Italy.
Mussolini consolidation of fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-1929 could have been mainly due to the use of force and intimidation. However this was not a straightforward process, since fascism was a new thing. In the years 1922 to January 1925 marked the transition from the liberal parliamentary system to the fascist state. Like many political transitions, it was an untidy and complicated process. Although from the start Mussolini’s intentions were quite difficult to establish, however it could be that Mussolini wanted to set up from the beginning a totalitarian one party state.
Benito Mussolini and his creation of Fascism was the glue that held Italy together. Fascism promised national unity and condemned the Socialist party. To understand how Fascism became powerful within Italy, it is imperative to acknowledge the driving force behind this regime. To put it bluntly, violence played an essential role in the development of the Fascist party. Mussolini’s practice of fierceness was able to create a formidable system of government that did not tolerate weakness. In 1919, Benito Mussolini give an Afternoon speech, where he stressed the difference between Socialism and Fascism. Here, he states, “We declare war, against socialism, not because it is socialism, but because it opposes nationalism” (Stone 2013, 38).
Within Italy, The Great War caused many problems and a great amount of distress. As a result of this, hundreds of new fascist groups started to emerge. In October 1922, Benito Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy and contributed a lot to the nation. He developed his power by forming the Fascist National Party in 1923 and eliminating political opposition. Mussolini and his followers ruled Italy through an authoritarian dictatorship. He made it clear that the war was a turning point for Italy and the returning of combat soldiers would form a new elite and bring about a new type of state to transform Italian politics and society. Mussolini set many
The state of Mussolini’s Fascist Italy and Hitler’s Nazi Germany, can be highly comparable in their policies and ideologies. Fascism is a political ideology, in which the country is to be racially and culturally pure. Mussolini said himself that “Fascism desires the state to be strong and organic and to always be prepared for conflict”. Fascism includes things such as nationalism, hostility to democracy, racism, the love of symbols such as uniforms, parades and army discipline. It is a totalitarian philosophy which worships the state and nation. Fascism is an extreme right-wing that celebrates the nation or race as a pure community which exceeds all other loyalties and expectations (Downing, 2001). Most of the time it celebrates masculinity and male supremacy, rarely it will promote female solidarity (De Grand, 1995). Fascist aims are to prepare for conflict and violence and to prepare and educate the youth. Both were able to gain support from military associations,
The First World War had started reinforcing nationalism, and a desire of great achievements and glory for the nation. These sudden nationalist beliefs created among the Italians of the Risorgimento were made stronger by the fear of a possible socialist revolution. The conditions of growing industry of the Risorgimento had caused the growth of the socialist movement, which then helped Mussolini gain power due to his anti communist beliefs.
These factors were all highly important to the Fascists’ control of Italy up to 1939 but it could be argued some of these were of more value to the Fascist domination than others.