Charles Murray (1990) had developed a theory called the ‘underclass’, this theory categorises those living in poverty and defines them as non-working, inadequate and dangerous to society. Such writings have been an influence on the right realists and have a need to reinforce personal responsibility for an individual’s behaviour. Murray goes on to discuss two different types of underclass, firstly, the poor. These are people that only have low income but maintain their morals and standards and secondly, there are those with low income and their morals and standards match that. Those households with low standards are stereotyped as untidy and contain drunken and disorderly behaviour. He claims the men cannot keep jobs and the children are ill-educated resulting in antisocial behaviour and juvenile delinquency. This theory talks about a ‘fear of crime’ that would be instilled into communities by the underclass because the underclass is a classic example of the habitual criminal.
Through the social pathology theory of the structural-functional approach, poverty is considered a social problem by stating that those who are in poverty are poor because of bad life choices they have made for themselves. They believe that those in poverty do not try hard enough to be successful, and therefore cannot be a functional part of society. They believe that social problems arise because not all members of a society are doing their part to make society work. Through the symbolic-interaction theory, one way poverty is caused is because children who grow up in a family that is poor, will likely have a hard time getting out of poverty themselves. They will learn and pick up attitudes from their family members and those around them, which will continue as they get older. If their mother and father both didn’t have the opportunity for a good education or a job, that child will likely not value education or a well-paid job either. Social problems can be caused from learning behaviors and attitudes from interactions with others. The feminist theory explains the problem of poverty because of the inequality between men and women. Women are less likely than men to get successful jobs, and if they do they are still paid a significant amount less. Women don’t have the same opportunities men have to make a successful life for themselves, and are more likely to be single moms taking care of their children, than single fathers. This can lead to poverty because women don’t make enough to be able to support themselves and their families “In recent decades, an increasing share of the poor is made up of women (especially single women) and their children” (Macionis 2018: 1.3). The social-conflict theory describes poverty as a result of inequality between different social classes. Most times people in our society see those in poverty and believe they did it to
Did you know that in the US alone, according to the Census Bureau that 14.5% of people live in poverty today? Poverty is where you're at a point of being extremely poor. It makes life difficult for these people living in poverty to get food, water and a healthy environment to live in. It ties together with these excerpts because the main character and their family are going through poverty. In these excerpts it involves the following; Frank McCourts "The Street", and Ann Petrys "Angelas Ashes" it shows in each excerpt how the main character is going through poverty with their families, but yet still showing perseverance by not letting anything back them down from helping their family.
In the memoir, A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah, and the film The Inevitable Defeat of Mister and Pete, there is a lot to do with poverty, loss of family and independence. Only in different ways. Ishmael is on his own and has to find his own food, water and shelter along with a few friends. The boys are all young but were thrown into the real world very quickly and unexpectedly. Mister and Pete have their mothers, but it does not matter as of the mothers do not seem to care for their children as much as they should. Mister and Pete come home to rarely any food at all, no money and are scared of one day, no shelter. Mister has to take charge in his home as a result of his mother being a drug addict and does not try to help, just like Ishmael had to be his own person by reason of the believed loss of his family.
Poverty is one of the main subject matters that is present in the book of The Other Wes Moore, and its consequences are revealed through various outcomes that are being portrayed by both characters. Poverty is being characterized through the social environment that both characters live in. Both Wes Moore’s were living in an environment that had an impact not only on the way they behave, but also their psychological behaviour. “Living in the Bronx and Baltimore had given me the foolish impression that I knew what poverty looked like. At the moment, I realized I had no idea what poverty was even in rassing sense of pride tentatively bloomed in the middle of the sadness I felt at my surroundings” (Moore, 2010). Moore explains this notion of poverty when he realizes how different poverty can be depending on the country. Through this statement, the author reveals that poverty is inescapable and it exists everywhere. In comparison, Gabor Mate’s In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction book, explains the notion of poverty in a manner that demonstrates how poverty is a result of societal issues, and when problems are combined they lead to stress, anxiety as well as depression. He further establishes how every individual has a way of coping with life hardships and stressors, some choose to seek help and others try to forget about the issues in which they encounter by using drugs, and their choice frequently depends on their social hierarchy or status. “In the
Poverty is a terrible condition, which as unfortunate as it is, many people across the globe suffer from. Poverty can present itself in many ways and in many different circumstances, which is shown in the following stories. In ' Angela's Ashes' by Frank McCourt, young Frank is burdened with the responsibiliity of providing for his family. Similarly, in 'The Street' by Ann Petry, Lutie, a single black mother, is struggling to find shelter for her family. In both 'Angela's Ashes' and 'The Street,' a key member of each family is desperately trying to support their loved ones and meet their basic human needs. In both passages, the author uses specific characters, events, and settings to demonstrate the theme that one needs perseverance to overcome poverty.
The United States is made up of social classes which are divided based on the socio economic status of the citizen or the family. The three different levels to the class sys-tem are the upper class, the middle class, and the lower class. Unfortunately there is also poverty that exists which is also a factor to be considered when analyzing crime. There are many theorist who believe that a person’s socio economic status has a large impact on the likelihood of whether or not a person will commit crime during their life-time. According to Bank, Flavin, and Leighton, “Marx and Engels believed that crime was about defects of society and the product of the demoralization and alienation caused by the conditions of capitalism.” In short this statement is saying that there are underlying reasons why people commit crimes, it is not just about whether poverty is present, how wealthy a person, what social class they are in, or what a person’s socio economic status is. However, socio economic status, poverty level, and social class all do have an effect on the rate of which crime is committed by citizens.
Poverty can change how people act and the way that they live in society. Poverty can also stand for the experience someone may lose by living the same way as everyone else around them. Poverty can mean different things such as lack money and experience, but all types of poverty can limit what a person can do such as in the short stories “The Gulf Coast,” “The Louisiana Live Oak Society,” and “The Man Who Was Almost a Man.”
Many people in the United States are currently or have been a victim of poverty in today’s society. A number of economic poverty lines, poverty gaps and poverty orderings have been proposed. In general poverty it is the terms of income distribution and inequality (Poverty: An International Glossary. 2006, p61-62. 2p). In regards to poverty, there are various aspects in life that affect people in these communities. The largest concentration of poverty is public housing which is also known as “The Projects”. This then leads to many drug trade transactions and a growing epidemic of violence. Many people that are victims of poverty feel that the system is designed for them to fail.
The book The Reluctant God by Pamela F. Service was published in 1988 by Ballantine Books. An award that this book has won is the Golden Kite Honor Award. In this book, a girl named Lorna Padgett and a king from ancient Egypt named Ameni meet up in a mysterious way in the present world. Together, they go on an adventure to find an urn that was shipped all the way to London. While reading this book, it showed Lorna and Ameni’s separate lives before they met and then after they met. In this novel, the levels of Maslow’s hierarchy that were demonstrated were the belongingness, cognitive, and self-actualization needs.
Through comparison of Dibs' development throughout the novel to Abraham Maslow's 'Hierarchy of Needs' the reader is able to understand why Dibs was able to develop in the way he did. Maslow's theory states that human behaviour is a direct response to the fulfilment of a five tiered hierarchy that
Poverty and Mental Health Poverty effects us all in society money can cause all different types of types of stress. Some of the subjects I will be going over is how mental illness can be a contributing factor to poverty, drug addictions and the solutions I believe would assist with these illnesses, and the employment opportunities that are effected by addictions and mental disorders. Sometimes this stress can lead to a mental disorder or in some cases addictions depending on how one manages financial stress. Stress can lead to mental disorders 30 to 40 percent of homeless people suffer from a mental illness. “Sociological research from as far back as the 1030`s has found that mental health of the lower class is worse than that of the higher class”(Faris and Dunham 1939; Srole et al 2011). Mental health plays a large part of everyday life for those who live in poverty with a mental disorder it is extremely difficult to function when they do not have the medications need to function in society. Part of this issue is not having a stable income to afford medications and treatment. Once an individual is homeless and living in poverty the employers make it close to impossible for them to find a job this can be due to their mental illness or the fact they do not have the qualifications most employers requir. This can be extremely discouraging for those that want to make money to afford shelter and food. Mental illness is dangerous when it is not treated. Those who suffer from a
Other potential causes of poverty are substance abuse, mass incarceration, unemployment, and low minimum wage. For example education, poverty prevents people from attaining proper education. Children who don’t form essential thinking skills before going to school often fall behind other children around their age. Without the ability to attend school, many people go through life illiterate. Then there’s incarcerations. Thus, leading to high unemployment rates in the United States. A high unemployment rate can impede a country from progressing in all aspects, and hinders the country from developing into a strong economic system. An additional prompt is the patterns of substance abuse that are established at an early age that impacts other life decisions affecting poverty, such as whether or not to stay in school. And consequently, children who are born to substance abusing parents are more than likely to be malnutritioned. The meaning of malnutrition is the lack of sufficient nutrients in the body which leads to various internal diseases. Diseases are very common in people living in poverty because they lack resources to maintain a healthy living environment and homeless children are less likely to receive proper nutrition and immunization.
There is evidence everywhere to suggest that poverty is a cause of crime, anti-social behaviour, and drug abuse. However, this can be counter-argued, as these can be a symptom of poverty – for example, an individual spending all their money on drugs and alcohol can lead to having no money to pay for sanitation, food, water, and shelter.
The Underclass and Poverty The definition of poverty is a state in which income is insufficient to provide basic necessities such as food, shelter, or clothing. When one is in poverty, they adapt practices that differ from “mainstream” culture in order to adapt and survive economic deficiencies. The analysis of those practices is called the culture of poverty. The underclass plays a big role when it comes to the culture of poverty. Those in poverty set the culture that others may follow and ultimately what sociologists and others analyze. Some of the practices are illegal forms of work, like drug dealing. Other practices include living in multifamily households and swapping. William Julius Wilson, an American sociologist, has two arguments when it comes to the underclass and poverty. Wilson’s first argument is that class is more of an issue than race in determining life chances for people of color. His second argument states that the real culprit of poverty is discrimination, gentrification, deindustrialization, and globalization. Wilson’s ideas of race and class provide a different perspective on class inequalities.