What Is Mutation? What Is a Gene Mutation? Discuss Sickle Cell Anemia (Its Cause, Effect, and Treatment) B) What Are Mutagens and Their Effects? C) What Is Genetic Counseling? Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of This Procedure.

873 WordsDec 14, 20054 Pages
A mutation can simply be put as abrupt change in the genotype of an organism that is not the result of recombination. A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Mutations range in size from a single DNA building block (DNA base) to a large segment of a chromosome. Gene mutations occur in two ways: they can be inherited from a parent or acquired during a person's lifetime. Mutations that are passed from parent to child are called hereditary mutations or germ line mutations (because they are present in the egg and sperm cells, which are also called germ cells). This type of mutation is present throughout a person's life in virtually every cell in the body. Mutations that occur only in an egg or sperm…show more content…
Chemical Mutagens fall into several categories, including base analogues, chemicals that are similar to normal DNA bases. Researchers have developed various methods to test the mutagenic activity of different chemicals, with one such example being the Ames Test. In the test, several strains of Salmonella Typhimurium which have been selected are employed, based on their sensitivity to mutation. The test substance (liquid) or an extract of the test substance and the test organism are mixed together in a soft agar solution. Reverse mutation can then be observed. Genetic counselors are health professionals with specialized graduate degrees and experience in the areas of medical genetics and counseling. Most enter the field from a variety of disciplines, including biology, genetics, nursing, psychology, public health and social work. Genetic counselors work as members of a healthcare team, providing information and support to families who have members with birth defects or genetic disorders and to families who may be at risk for a variety of inherited conditions. Genetic counselors also provide supportive counseling to families, serve as patient advocates, and refer individuals and families to community or state support services. They identify families at risk, investigate the problem present in the family, interpret information about the disorder, analyze inheritance patterns and risks of recurrence, and review available options with the family.

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