What Is Negotiation As A Process?

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Fells (2016) defines negotiation as ‘a process where two parties with differences which they need to resolve try to reach an agreement through exploring for options and exchanging offers – and an agreement’ (p. 3). These different interests can often give rise to competition between parties and can thus make the process of negotiation quite an emotional process. These emotions can influence the negotiation process as a whole, depending on the particular emotion that is generated. Emotion is such an integral facet of negotiation, as Van Kleef et al. (2004) note, if two parties are in disagreement ‘but neither has an emotional reaction, there will be no negotiation’ (Davidson & Greenhalgh 1999, cited in Van Kleef et al., p 57). Emotion is also particularly useful in order to understand and predict the actions of the parties involved in the negotiation.
This essay will investigate the influence of different emotions, including negative emotions such as anger and sadness, positive emotions such as happiness and excitement, and finally anxiety. The use of deception of emotions as a strategy for negotiation activities will also be discussed, and advice for the effective management of emotions by negotiators will also be offered.
Happiness and Positive Emotion in Negotiation
The effect of emotions in negotiations can be considered in two ways: interpersonally (the way one party’s emotions may influence the other party’s behaviour) and intrapersonally (the way the individual
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