What Is The Concentric Zone Model?

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However, The Concentric Zone Model has been criticised. The theory does not explain Modern Ecology, as high-class housing tends to be near the Centre of the city and not on the outskirts (Bernard et al, 2010). One of the largest critiques is that the theory is Context specific as it cannot be applied to explain city’s other than Chicago, for instance, many new housing estates were built on the edges of cities in Britain in recent years and it’s also Historically specific as it doesn’t apply to Chicago anywhere near as much today as it did in the past. This theory was also condemned for not taking middle class crimes, such as white collar crime into account. Moreover, Park and Burgess used official data to construct their theory, yet they didn’t…show more content…
This supported the idea that the environment people live in most likely has a big impact on crime rates (Beirne & Messerschmidt, 2000). Shaw and McKay developed a theory which became known as the ‘Disorganisational Theory’. The theory directly links crime rates to neighbourhood environmental characteristics. A core principle of The Disorganisational Theory is that place matters (Heathcote, 1981). Comparing the maps, Shaw and McKay also recognized that the pattern of delinquency rates resembled the ‘natural urban areas’ from Park and Burgess' Concentric Zone Model. Shaw and McKay found that crime wasn’t the consequence of criminals moving to the same area purposely, but instead was the outcome of disadvantaged living conditions, which often generated obstructions for people living in the community. Following this, more people would try to find ways of escaping these poor living conditions, which would often be illegal (Shaw & McKay, 1942). These people would frequently provide others living in the same communities with incentives for criminal behaviour. Sutherland (Hagan, 2007) backed up this point by stating that criminal behaviour is learned, and if people see others thriving on behalf of crime, then they are likely to copy. As Sutherland (1947) stated, people often believe it is acceptable to commit crime if they have justifications behind doing so. Research from Sutherland has shown that many people who commit crimes from poorer communities use their lack of money as a justification for doing
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