twelve men (Robespierre, Barere, Saint Just, Couthon, Lindet, Carnot, Saint-Andre, Prieur, Varenne, Herbois, Scholles, and Duvernois) ruled France; even though they were technically under the control of the Convention.
Just about any country that one can name has some history of civil unrest, class issues, rioting in the streets, and outright warfare. These patterns of behavior are common denominators for most civilization in the world. The names, faces, and places may change, but the motivations are generally the same, because of the need for change and the willingness to do whatever is necessary to achieve it. In contrast to the United States, which was in the process of freeing itself from British colonial rule, France was working to free itself from royal absolutism. This period is historically known as the French Revolution. Many scholars do not agree on the chronology of the French Revolution; some scholars suggest that the Revolution took place between 1789 to 1799 while others feel that it did not end until Napoleon lost power in 1815. To better understand the history of the French Revolution it is necessary to discuss the causes, major events, significant figures, and the outcomes associated with these political developments. Without this uprising, that changed the face of the entire country and influenced local political life in many countries in Europe, in all likelihood the France we know today would never have existed.
The literature that came out of the French Revolution often shares common themes of death, rebirth, and destruction. Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is much the same way. Throughout the novel, Dickens clearly supports the revolution but also depicts the brutality of the revolutionaries. Dickens uses powerful metaphors of a sea to symbolize the revolutionaries destroying old France and the belittling name of “Jacques” to depict the narcissistic views of the French aristocracy to show his support for the revolution.
“Maîtres chez nous” or in English “Masters of our own house”. These words spoken by Premier Jean Lesage caused an uproar in Quebec by giving the citizens a sense of confidence they had never felt before. Jean Lesage played a crucial role in the modernization of Quebec in a short period of time after recuperating the province from the “Great Darkness”. While the rest of Canada was undergoing innovation, Quebec fell behind due to Maurice Duplessis. After the death of Duplessis, Lesage ran for Premier and was elected in 1960. He promised to improve Quebec through social, economic and cultural changes and proved so by creating programs and replacing others. One of Lesage’s accomplishments to modernize Quebec was being able to subside the Catholic Church’s role and replace it with a more commanding provincial government role. Another achievement of Lesage’s to rejuvenate Quebec was nationalizing private electricity companies which allowed workers to speak French entirely, guaranteed the Quebec economy benefits, and adjusted wages. Finally, the Quiet Revolution allowed the rest of Canada to hear the nationalist views of Quebecers after the FLQ terrorist group terrorized several mailboxes, kidnapped James Cross and killed Pierre Laporte.
The exposition of this book is very spread out. We find out that Montag is a fireman(and what that entails), his name, and we meet Clarisse in the first four pages. Then, on page five, Clarisse introduces the idea of Montag reading the books(which of course is illegal) and asks the question “are you happy”(Bradbury, 7). This introduces the main conflict of the story. However, the more important main characters like Mildred and Beatty aren’t introduced until page nine and page twenty-five. Lastly, the setting isn’t really plainly introduced in the book or given a name. It’s just a city in the twenty-fourth century that is very close to the war that is happening throughout the book.
The first reason is because of Matthew Antoine’s warnings – no matter what, there is “always news coming back to the quarter about someone,” (62) who dies or goes to prison for killing someone else. No matter how hard Antoine tries people are going to die; the main cause of death comes from a mixture of poverty and economic barriers for African Americans in Louisiana. Another reason is because Antoine believes that “you have to go away to know about life” and that “there’s nothing but ignorance here” (65). Wiggins is afraid that living in Bayonne automatically makes him susceptible to a poor lifestyle and no matter what he tells Jefferson, justice in court is always going to be the same; when it's a white man's word against a black man's, the white man always wins. Wiggins’ memories of Antoine help him fully understand how his community functions and why being African American in the south is such a
The American and French Revolutions were profoundly motivated by economics. Prior to the Revolution, British colonies in America were thriving. Colonists paid fairly few taxes and were permitted to participate in domestic economic activity, granted they adhere to the Navigation Act, an act requiring, “that all trade within the empire be conducted on ships which were constructed, owned and largely manned by British citizens. Certain enumerated goods whether exported or imported by the colonies had to be shipped through England regardless of the final port of destination.” (Baack) Its mother country however, was not analogous. England’s debt had nearly doubled due to their victory over France during the 7 Year War and was frantically
The French Revolution was a period of long ending causes and it led to many long-lasting conditions in France including political, social and economic conditions. The French revolution was significant because it led to the end of the old monarchy. The important causes of the French Revolution were the old regime, economic hardships, and the American Revolution. Thus, economic hardships, the old regime and the American Revolution were the important causes of the French Revolution.
The book takes place in the 1940s in mostly the plantation outside of Bayonne, Louisiana, and parts of the book take place in Bayonne, Louisiana. Bayonne is a larger town of about six thousand with all services and buildings for whites uptown, and all those for blacks in the back of town. There were schools, movie theaters, and nightclubs in both the white and black sides of town, but the
When analyzing the French Revolution, the idea of political transformation and citizen involvement play a huge role in actually understanding how the revolution altered from enlightened conversations in salons to its completion, resulting from the French “voice” uniting to halt The Terror that Paris had become. Reflecting back on this event, historians still debate on the specific moment this aristocratic revolution of 1789 turned into the blood-bath radical revolution due to the momentum and contingency that each event has on the overall Revolution. The two authors, Jeremy Popkin, and Timothy Tackett, explain their historical opinion on this period of French history, in which both share a similar
Timothy Tackett’s book When the King Took Flight focuses on arguably the most consequential event in the French Revolution. King Louis XVI and his family’s attempt to escape France would influence an atmosphere of violence that would only continue to worsen. King Louis XVI regretted signing and accepting the Civil Constitution of the Clergy earlier in July 1790. Deciding to flee the country he assumed that through foreign intervention or negotiating he could change parts of the constitution he disagreed with. However he would be recognized and captured in Varennes. The king underestimated the true meaning and appeal of the revolution (87). His misunderstanding of the revolution led the way for the destruction of kingship and the monarchy itself. This decision had given power to the sans-culottes and the idea of a republic. While the kings flight to Varennes had many unintended consequences it serves as a crucial turning point for the revolution.
The third and forth chapters continue to look at French classes and cultures. In chapter three you jump into the world of the Bourgeois in Montepellier. Darnton describes with the aid of Joseph Berthele, every nuance of the Bourgeois in Montpellier. "The Bourgeois is the modes of production, a certain variety of Economic Man with his own way of life and his own ideology." (Darnton Pg. 110) The fourth chapter instead of looking at another economic class Darnton examines the Intellectuals of French Culture enlisting the aid of a policeman, Joseph d'Hemery "an inspector of the book trade". (Darnton Pg. 145) Joseph you might say was a little obsessed often in addition to inspecting the books that came through he would also investigate the writer. The Officer built up a rather large census of the literary population in Paris, every one " from the most famous Philosophes to the most obscure hacks." (Darnton Pg. 145) Darnton in this chapter talks about a lot of published literary
In Charles Rearick’s book, Paris Dreams, Paris Memories, he describes the various ways in which Paris is “represented” through various images he identifies as the City of Light, Old Paris, the Capital of Pleasures, and Paname. Rearick further writes how and why these images of Paris came of importance and how they shaped the geographical layout of the city we know today. All of these images together have likewise produced the city of Paris while also providing the framework of Parisian events and experiences.