A Power system is an connection of generators to load centres. Through H.V. electrical lines & in general is controlled mechanically. It can be divided into 3 subsystems: Generation, X’mission and Distribution-systems. The electric power demand is Growing and building of new generating units & transmission circuits is becoming difficult because of environmental & economic reasons. So, power utilities are forced to depend on utilization of existing generating units and to load existing lines close to their heating limits.
In this thesis, a simulation modeling and optimization of FMS objectives for evaluating the effect of factors such as demand arrival time, no. of AGVs, velocity of AGVs, and distance preference between two work stations used in system. System utilization and throughput both are affected by these factors. It is observed that from comparing the result maximum percentage of utilization is 10% against of throughput parameters.
A power system is always in a state of disturbance that may lead to instability in the system. The consequences of a major power supply interruption can prove to be so disastrous, that every effort must be made to reduce the impact of such a disturbance. The process of determining the steadiness of the power system following any upset is known as security assessment. In particular, MW security assessment is a process to evaluate the security of the power system following a disturbance. It is done considering the loading conditions in respect of MW power flow on the lines. Each line has a capacity to carry MW power up to transmission line design limits beyond which the lines may trip due to overloading. In this paper MW security assessment has
The shipping cost and/or unavailability of transportation between the plants and some locomotive locations will eliminate some of the routes due to cost inefficiency. These routes are the unacceptable routes and will not be considered for distribution from the specified plant. By removing unacceptable routes, Solutions Plus is able to build a linear programming solution to determine which plant/locomotive location combinations are optimal. Based on the shipping cost provided, the routes that are eliminated are as follows:
good results regarding the solution quality and success rate in finding optimal solution. Performances of algorithms are tested on mathematical benchmark functions with known global optimum. In order evaluate the optimization power of BSA various benchmark functions are taken into consideration. This dissertation presents the application of GSA on 10 benchmark functions and GOA on 8 benchmark functions. These benchmark functions are the classical functions utilized by many researchers. Despite the simplicity, we have chosen these test functions to be able to compare our results to those of the current meta-heuristics. Benchmark functions used are minimization functions and are subdivided into the two groups i.e., unimodal and multimodal.
Introduction: (provides the big pictures and context), problem description, analysis and study, results, summary and future work (more of engineering), appendices and references.
Introduction: Due to growing awareness of environmental issues, Australia is committed to the clean energy target of 33,000GWh by the year 2020. Integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in low voltage system will play an important role in fulfilling the target. In order to accommodate DERs, the structure and control strategies of the modern power systems is moving from traditional centralised generation and control structure to localized generation and control and coordination . However, it possesses a variety of economic and technical challenges.
Exact optimisation method is the optimisation method that can guarantee to find all optimal solutions. In principle, the optimality of generated solution can be proofed mathematically. Therefore, exact optimisation is also termed as mathematical optimisation. However, exact optimisation approach is impractical usually. The effort of solving an optimisation problem by exact optimisation grows polynomially with the problem size. For example, to solve a problem by brute force approach, the execution time increases exponentially respect to the dimensions of the problem.
To halt the drop in frequency, it is necessary to intentionally, and automatically disconnect a portion of the load equal to or greater than the generation deficiency in order to achieve balanced power economics while maintaining system stability. Automated load shedding systems are necessary for industrial power systems since sudden disturbances can plunge a system into a hazardous state much faster than an operator can react. These automated schemes must be designed and implemented to possess in-depth knowledge of system operating parameters and must rely on time sensitive
The linear program has been used for many different fields of study, it has been used most often in businesses and economics. The linear program is most popular in industries such as manufactures , telecommunications , transportation and energy. The linear programming has proved its usefulness in modelling various types of problems in routing, scheduling, planning, design and assignment.
The Lagrangian Relaxation algorithm being implemented in basically an extension of Non - Convex Optimization to a power system. In this project, we have taken up the cost functions of each of the generators under consideration and developed the cost function to be minimized keeping the mind the generator limits as well as the load balance.
In the past two decades, the problem of optimal power flow (OPF) has received much attention. It is of current interest of many utilities and it has been marked as one of the most operational needs. The OPF problem solution aims to optimize a selected objective function via optimal adjustment of the power system control variables, while at the same time satisfying various equality and inequality constraints.
Introduction: The power demand growth is a critical concern for the power utilities as they must always supply the customers with the least interruptions and cost. Integration of DG units to distribution networks can be a better solution that defers investments of upgrading existent power systems. If the system topology is assumed to be constant during the planning period, the appearance of new loads or the peak load demand growth to the network . In this case, DG can be a valuable choice for the planning engineers to reduce investments for upgrading the distribution system because it is located near the load and doesn’t need as much transmission and distribution infrastructures to served loads. In addition to this advantage, the main advantages of DG can be expressed as follows: improving the system reliability, improving voltage profile, power loss reduction, less pollution emissions (in comparison to traditional machines), feasibility to use CHP (Combine Heat and Power) generation. The problem of DG sizing and allocation has great importance. The installation of DGs at the places that is non-optimal can cause an increase in system losses, resulting an increase in costs and, therefore, having a negative impact .
In the last years, distribution automation has gathered a significant relevance in distribution systems planning and operation. The network operator (NOp) looks for a suitable configuration of the feeder topology as well as the system, pursuing the reliability enhancement and a full energy demand supply. Nevertheless, an efficient protection system requires an adequate investment in such devices as reclosers, fuses and sectionalizers. Thus, two conflictive objectives arise, namely, NOp investment minimization and reliability maximization. In this sense, the number and location of devices in the system are critical variables to accomplish preceding objectives.