What is racial inequality? Racial inequality is discrepancies in the opportunities and treatment of people based solely on their race. Racial inequality is a serious issue that is often discussed in the American criminal justice system. Although racial discrimination is present in the criminal justice system, some people use the words inequality, discrimination, racism, and profiling loosely and do not understand how truly complex it is to prove that there actually is racial inequality present in the criminal justice system. Daniel P Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, and Andrea M. Lindsey article Offending and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Criminal Justice: A Conceptual Framework for Guiding Theory and Research and Informing Policy illustrates
Additionally, not taking race into account allows universities to enhance their selection system. Not only does this dismiss the possibility of being influenced by ethnicity, but it rewards excellency in more qualified students. Since in society, people choose to award high-skilled positions to highly qualified people, it certainly makes sense to admit the most capable individuals. Louis P. Pojman, in his article “The Case Against Affirmative Action,” states that,
At the time I was 20 years old. Being underage I had of course bought liquor through someone older, and back then, due to the hurdles it took to obtain decent alcohol even a pack of Corona was regarded as a great drink. It was the kind of days where every party was a remake of the film Project X and you never knew who or what you would end up with at the end of the night. Needless to say, we were all young back then and saw the world as our oyster; it was up to us to pry it open with our own hands. As Wiz Khalifa put it, we were young, wild, and free. Looking back, it never crossed our minds that at the end of the night we would be a lot older, controlled, and oppressed.
The barriers that separate men have existed for centuries. Race, class, status, these are all ideas that have created a divide among humans. This divide creates competition and tension. Throughout the history of the legal system, justice has been used to validate slavery and other forms of racial inequality. Our system now has changed, but the basic concept has remained the same. According to one study, the judicial system was invented by whites to protect whites and keep people of color at bay (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2017, p1). This idea of preserving a one superior racial system resulted in a bias still existent today.
The fact that, in most cases, a minority student will get accepted over a white student with the same or almost the same qualifications is causing controversy all over the nation. This is precisely the definition of affirmative action. In an excerpt titled Affirmative Action and the College Admissions Process from the book, 8 Steps to Help Black Families Pay For College, by Thomas and Will LaVeist, it is stated that, “affirmative action is meant to level the playing field and ensure that schools and businesses are not intentionally discriminating against minority groups.” This leveling of the playing field leads to the very broad generalization and misperception that the policy is allowing less-qualified minorities to take the place of the more-qualified whites.
In America there are still several parts of our society that remain racially unequal including, the workforce, the wealth gap between minorities and whites, as well as incarceration rates and police behavior. The unemployment rates in America are relatively high and because of how hard it is to get a job, the employers prefer to hire someone that they feel more comfortable with, which typically aren’t minorities. The wealth gap between minorities and whites is continuing to grow as the years move on and because the wealth gap many people are starting to turn to criminalism. Because of the amount of people turning to criminalism, the incarceration rates of minorities is steadily increasing. Racial inequality in one section of our society can affect all of the other sections as well. It is a “snowball effect” of sorts. One small aspect of racial inequality can lead to another and another and so on and so forth until our whole society is unequal. Racial inequality has a negative impact on our society
As the only sociologist that has been chosen on the North American council I would like to address my main concern, which is that having one person voice the social inequalities for approximately 580 million people is not just. In my best attempt to be as fair and voice the major concerns that I feel are prevalent throughout North America, I chose racial inequality, educational inequality, and gender inequality. Before I further discuss these inequalities I would like to define social inequality to give the reader a clearer understanding, “Social inequality is the long term existence of significant differences in access to goods and services among social groups”, as quoted from our textbook.
The social construction of race changed due to the great number of immigrants coming to the U.S. Once they arrived they must identify as a certain race which is based on phenotype or ancestry. This concept is seen in the reading What is Racial Domination? by Matthew Desmond and Mustafa Emirbayer explains the effect phenotype has on an individual such as the color of their skin, eyes and also ancestry too. The social construction of race is related to the racial inequality because it determined if a person had rights or not. This idea is seen through the two supreme cases Ozawa and Thind. For the case of Ozawa for example, he used his own skin color and the idea that race should not matter but the beliefs they hold. He was denied citizenship
One would not want to live a life if they knew their chances of reaching their goals, were almost certainly downsized or marginalized by their race. Well, sadly this is the case for Blacks in America. Blacks are often found to be, at the bottom of the American society. America is suppose to be “The land of the free, and the home of the brave,” allowing all citizens equal opportunity. However in a harsh reality it is not, but instead the land of the incapacitated, and home of the Whites. Looking back in time, America has always been a country of racial inequality that benefited Whites and demeaned any other race. Examples of racial inequality in our history consist of the American-Indian war, slavery, Jim Crow laws, and general discrimination. Thus the term “White Supremacy,” meaning Whites have dominance and are superior, came about. The feeling of Whites Supremacy is still felt in today’s society, and is one of many reason why race still matters. Even though the are many theories of why race still matters, it is important to realize 3 major reasons why that is so. In short, race matter because of the increased likelihood of minorities experiencing: poverty, racial profiling and Institutional racism.
Though, on the flip side, the American dream would not be available to all with affirmative action. This program diminishes the opportunities for whites to achieve their dreams. From education to the workforce, affirmative action holds bias towards minorities over Caucasians. Despite being “more qualified,” the whites are not placed into certain colleges or workplaces because of race. Even if a Caucasian student receives a near perfect score on the SAT, a student being of color would be the same equivalence. In addition to this, the affirmative action’s policies give minority applicants a minor self-confidence that they do not need to perform better than their white counterparts, just racially distinguishable. This shows that affirmative action does not focus on abilities but rather demographics, thus, showing the controversy with this program today. Above all, affirmative action violates the Constitution. The Fourteenth Amendment forbids the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens to equal opportunities. However, accepting certain groups of applicants over others due to race proves that affirmative action endorses racism. Therefore, how is the program equal if only race is the factor? How can this program be equality for all, if the whites are being discriminated against?
The research into racial inequality has mostly focused on the disadvantages experienced by the oppressed group. As the field continues to grow, it has become increasingly important to examine the privileges experienced by Whites (Bonilla-Silva, 2006). But to effectively examine this, the White individual must accept the fact that White privilege and racism still very much exist in the United States and how it affects all aspects of our culture and institutions.
Many scored higher SAT/ACT scores than other races and were rejected in order to create a diverse student body. However, this method of creating diversity is neither beneficial nor logical in reference to the long term. According to statistics in a 2016 article published in the New York Times, there is 46% graduation rate in public colleges and less than 67% graduation rate in private colleges. We have overcompensated and created a new form of discrimination; one that penalizes the eligible and glorifies the unsuitable when applying to colleges and universities. In the recent case of Fisher vs. The University of Texas at Austin, the Supreme court upheld consideration of race in America. If colleges really want to keep from discrimination, they should advocate for an system where the applicants are associated with a number. They are guaranteed privacy, and the selection board is kept from labeling people. Also, their bias is put aside so that they can focus on what really matters in a
Lately in the news there has been an uprising of racial tragic events. From globally seeing ISIS attack different countries and in America the sensitivity of racial inequality amongst Black Lives Matter. Recently this past month we have witnessed the saddening news of racial inequality in America. With Sterling and Castile, the two black men who were shot and killed by white police officers in separate scenes. Where their deaths sparked protests across the nation pressuring for America to have police reform(Nelson, USA Today, 2016). Or a black gunman who targeted white police officers during a Dallas protest. There has been an arising uproar in America for racial change and equality. This past Sunday on July 10 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana three officers were killed by Gavin Long.
Racial discrimination occurs everyday to many different people. In America,the individuals who are usually discriminated against are the minorities like African Americans and Hispanics. Affirmative action is a policy that was created and has been claimed to be positive discrimination. The policy was created to give equal opportunity to groups of people who are usually discriminated against. Although Affirmative action has been named to be positive and support minorities, it is still unjust. There should be no positive aspects of racial discrimination. Many believe that it is only racial discrimination or racist if a caucasian person discriminates against a person of color but do not consider it racism if it happens to be the other way around. Racial Discrimination in any form is harmful which is why affirmative action policies are not correct.
In 1968 and 1865 Lincoln and Kennedy were trying to persuade Americans that the country is better united. Throughout America’s history I believe that a common goal was to build relations among the diverse nation. I think that Lincoln and Kennedy wanted to make a change because they saw the difference and unfair circumstances. However there has not been a lot that has changed. I believe a lot of people want to get rid of racism but a lot of people haven’t made an honest effort to make change. However I also think that many people do not know how to acquire change. Recognizing racial injustice can help create various steps toward racial equality in America’s society. When we as a society speak explicitly about race, we will accept everything that make us different from one another.