What Is The Similarities Between The Aeneid And The Iliad

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Vergil’s Aeneid, published in 19 BC, is well-known for being an immensely similar work to Homer’s Iliad - from its basic focus on a relatively minor Trojan character from the Iliad to its use of extensive allusions from the other work. Although the Aeneid can be viewed as a piece of propaganda aimed at an educated Roman audience, while the Iliad most likely did not have such a motivation behind its publication, modern readers can draw comparisons between the two to build an understanding of the differences between the ancient ideals explored in the works and the historical context in which said works were published.
The Aeneid’s description of Aeneas’s shield is one of the most obvious allusions to Homer’s Iliad - in book 18 of the Iliad, Achilles receives a shield from Hephaestus, the god of fire and blacksmithery. This shield is elaborately decorated, with a total of nine “rings,” and Homer utilizes ecphasis, or a description of art in words, in order to convey such decoration. For the most part, the scenes depicted in said rings are peaceful and somewhat pastoral. However, the shield’s second ring contains an image of “two noble cities filled with mortal men”: in one, a wedding is celebrated, followed by an unrelated legal case. (Iliad 18.490) In the other, a “raid” is occurring, aided by Pallas and Ares - the people “[clash] and [fight] like living, breathing men.” (18.540) These cities, while left unnamed, may be interpreted as Troy and Argos - which city is which,
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