What Is Utilitarianism And The Moral Principles That Govern A Person 's Or Group 's Behavior )

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The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greeks, meaning "love for wisdom." This term was coined after those that seek for knowledge, "philosophers." Philosophy in our present day is defined as, "the study of ideas about knowledge, truth, the nature and meaning of life, etc. (Merriam-Webster)." Philosophy can be subdivided into five categories: epistemology, logic, metaphysic, ethic, and aesthetic. These major areas of study has their importance in philosophy, but in this essay I will be reviewing a sub-field in ethics (the moral principles that govern a person 's or group 's behavior) called, "Utilitarianism." John Stuart Mill, a British philosopher, defines Utilitarianism as a moral theory in such that, "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness (BOOK)." This happiness, according to Mill, is pleasure minus pain. In this essay, I will review the three components to Utilitarianism, which focuses on consequentialist, social welfare, and aggregation. Furthermore, I will include the criticism on this view by considering the issues of basic rights, partiality, and the project of personal morality.

The first component of Utilitarianism is consequentialism. Consequentialist focuses only on consequences. They believe that "an act is morally right if and only if that act maximizes the good, that is, if and only if the total amount of good for all minus the total amount of

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