What Lies Beneath: The Meaning Beneath the Surface of Ernest Hemingway's Work

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In the early morning hours of April 15, 1912 over two thousand crew and passengers were awoken to the ghastly scraping of ice upon the Titanic’s hull. As the dying ship slowly descended beneath the waves and into the deep cold waters of the North Atlantic, the culprit of this gruesome scene was apparent. This was the work of the gigantic mountain of ice protruding from the dark waters. But ultimately what caused the destruction of the “Unsinkable Ship” and took the lives of fifteen hundred innocent souls was not the formidable ice face that arose from the freezing waters, but instead the unseen structure twice its size that lurked beneath the surface. Ernest Hemingway does the same thing to his readers that the iceberg did to the titanic. In Hemingway’s writing it is undeniably what lies beneath the surface, what remains unsaid, that truly shakes the reader to their core. Like other American writers, such as Mark Twain and Stephen Crane, Ernest Hemmingway worked as a journalist before beginning his career in literature. As a rule, journalists are directed to report just the facts without extra information or “fluff.” This minimalist writing style stuck with Hemmingway throughout his work, and became the basis of his “Iceberg theory” or “Theory of Omission.” Hemmingway first wrote of his new theory in his personal diary, later released posthumously. Speaking on the end of his story “Out of season” he said:
"I omitted the real end of "Out of Season" which was that the

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