What Makes A City?

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What makes a city? There are many thing that makes a city a city and a society a civilization. There are many definitions for civilization and I think the most correct it that a civilization is an advanced society. Most archaeologists use the term complex societies instead of civilizations. This essay discusses how complex societies are made up of several characteristics like dense populations, substance base, craft production, monumental architecture, taxation and some civilizations even had writing. All of these things go hand in hand with each other. This essay will also discuss city-states and what characteristics they have in common and what they don’t have in common. Population density is found in all of the civilizations.…show more content…
When bureaucrats come in there is a rise in the social elite. The social elite were mostly made up of religious figures, military as well as civil leaders and of course the bureaucrats. This is where monumental architecture come in. Monumental architecture could be anything. It could be a religious temple or a palace or even a warehouse. Most monumental architecture was dedicated to someone like a king or a god. When long distance trade starting to occur and more craft goods being produced, you need a way to keep a record of all the items and trades. The creation of writing was what helped with this. Writing kept the bureaucrats informed and kept a record of the trades that occurred. (Smiley 2015: Unit 1). All of these aspects are a part of a civilization and there are many more. Every society of the world was a civilization and every civilization had a city. A city-state is a part of a civilization but is independent. One example is the civilization Mesopotamia had city-states that were all independent of each other. City-states share a lot of the same traits like a civilizations but on a smaller scale. There was craft production, a centralized political and religious bureaucracies and trading. There are other feature that makes up a city-state like a walled city, canals, and outlying villages, farms, fields and a temple. (Smiley 2015: Unit 2). Two cites come to mind when these features are mentioned Ur and Maskan-shapir. Ur was occupied about 7,000 years
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