In America, a culture of sustained racism and sexism influences foreign policymakers, which results in colonialism and imperialism, the desecration of nations, and militancy. The authors of the articles, Michael L. Krenn and Laura McEnaney, with differing skill sets, provide evidence of racial and gendered bias in foreign policy. In “The Adaptable Power of Racism,” Krenn expertly examines the history of racism within foreign policy; how racism adapted in the face of religious and scientific challenges, and the overall effects of racist foreign policies.1 McEnaney, in “Gender Analysis and Foreign Relations,” provides a lackluster account of the application of gender analysis to foreign policy, specifically in relation to the policies of the Cold War and Spanish-American War.2 The history of racism and sexism in America provide a blueprint for foreign policymakers, where racist militancy and sexist excuses override basic human rights.
Throughout the past degree programmes, I continuously developed fundamental skills required to any serious historical research: how to collect, evaluate the primary and secondary sources in a critical manner and to derive a logical argument from them. The primary outcomes of this training were research essays that I did for assessment. One example is "Understanding the gendercide of the Yugoslavian civil war, 1991-1995", which was produced for the seminar on contemporary nationalism and gender politics. This one critically reviewed major analytic frameworks on mass war rape, namely biological, feminist, strategic interpretations, and pointed out all of them had failed to take account of the historical process that ‘ethnicised’ of women's body
The phrase became traditional in the follow-up of Serbian assaults on ethnic Bosnians during the Bosnian War. The crusade of the Bosnian War in 1992 lead the bigotry to a global dispute, as the Croats enforced ethnic cleansing protocols against the Muslim Bosnians. A number of genocides in 1994 and 1995 supported the continued entanglement of NATO air strikes in both applying a no fly zone and establishing the Serbian air force. United Nations arbitrators on the ground missed the opportunity to fix up the situation earlier. A heavy occupation force enforcing the end of the conflict brought 60,000 troops to the area. These crisis represents a criterion within the discussion about military force to avert a massive ethnic cleansing.
Genocide has long had gendered effects, but those effects have long gone relatively understudied as with many other issues relating to feminism in academic scholarship. By gendering our understanding of power and violence, genocide must be rethought and even perhaps redefined, as the reality of genocide often finds itself in conflict with the genocidal realities women have faced throughout time. Through gendering our understanding of genocide in this analysis, the feminist viewpoint provides important acknowledgements for the effects of these human rights abuses on both men and women. Moreover, we will better understand how the
On April 6,1992 the Bosnian War began,leading to the breakup of Yugoslavia. Serbian forces invaded Bosnia,throwing many people out of their homes and displacing them throughout the country. The actions of the soldiers traumatized the people of Bosnia in numerous ways, causing peril throughout the country.
Pettman argues that feminist groups had a problematic time dealing with the war on terror. In class, we watched the video of Laura Bush sharing her ideas that the women in these countries need our help. I think with both President Bush and first lady telling America that we need to save the women this gained attention. This led me to realize how much people's views can be influenced by those in power. The hopes of feminist were crushed this made me think how Americans always assume that we know what is best for other countries. It seems
The article “The State as a Gendered Institution” examined how everything, including the political landscape is gendered and has been gendered throughout history. Like norms, the political landscape is geared toward men. In this article Kimmel examines how the political landscape of the world is gendered and geared toward men. He uses examples such as the 19th century Bengali Men, in which men who were seen as lower on the totem poll of society were assigned feminine qualities as a way to belittle them. He says “Colonial powers nearly always used gender- both inadequate masculinity of colonized men and the helpless innocence of colonized women, who were in dire need of recuse” (Kimmel 306). Here we see that throughout history gender has been used as a way to belittle others, but what really stands out to me was by making something feminine or un-masculine, it was now seen as a lesser being. This speaks volume to the problem that our society has in that associating people with feminine qualities is a way to insult them, and through this example, we see how it really hasn’t changed throughout history. Through his article I learned how society has always treated femininity as a lesser than masculinity, which only strengthened my view that feminism needs to be promoted more because of this idea being present in history for so
From stepping out of your home to buy groceries, to seeing an armored tank in front of your house, to giving your child to a stranger seems like a nightmare. According to a Ted Talk given by war correspondent Janine di Giovanni on Wednesday in New York City, this nightmare was someone’s real life.
Have you ever looked at war as though women mattered? You often hear about the bravery of the soldiers who go to fight but what about the women at home, or even in war torn areas who are effected? Women are often victims of what the so called man created conflict and women are expected to stand back and let the fighting advance. War is more than a combat, its burden that increasingly falls on the shoulders of women. In some wars today it’s more dangerous to be a women than to be a soldier. A few women aimed back and changed the face of justice. Some of which are the texts I have analysed which present this issue of women being the victims of war these are, Tears of the Desert, I am Malala, I Came to testify and The Diary of Anne Frank. Even
The Bosnian War was an international arms conflict that involved 2 main sides, the Republika Srpska, and Herzeg-Bosnia. The Republika Srpska would show very little sympathy towards the Non-Serb population of cities they would occupy. 1995 of the Bosnian War reached its most violent climax, Bosnian Serb Forces in occupied Srebrenica began an ethnic cleansing of the Non-Serb population, and massacred more than 8000 people. Many generals and other people of high class within the Republika Srpska were tried for their actions, but none confessed and denied everything, this is what makes the following person so significant. Dragan Obrenovic, who was the only person who admit guilt for the Genocide and it taking place. The accused, Dragan
The belief of “Feminism” affected the social interaction between men and women by creating social issues amongst them and that led to protests and a worldwide movement sanctioned by women to get the equality they deserved. One feminist, Jane Addams, states in her speech on Women and War, “The belief that a women is against war simply because she is a women and not a man, does not, of course, hold. In every country there are many, many women who believe that the War is inevitable and righteous, and that the highest possible service is being performed by their sons who go into the army; just as there are thousands of men believing that in every country; the majority of women and men doubtless believe that”
As argued by McKay and Mazurana, (2007), in Bunch, (1987), the concept of feminism is seeking to challenge the very dynamics of such domination at all levels of society, and perhaps demand a world order that is premised more on cooperation than on conquest. For example, feminist peace theorist, Birgit Brock-Utne, (1989) argues that, authenticity of society requires positive peace, a society in which there is no indirect or structural violence such as gender inequality. While this is the most desired society, women have remained victims of negative peace, which is latent and occurs in the absence
In 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina had one the biggest genocide to come after WWII, in turn killing over 800,000 civilians. The war consisted of two factions, the Croats and Serbs, both wanting territory in Bosnia. Soon Radovan Karadžić, former Bosnian Serb president, created a special army to support the Serbs, soon the Serbs started the new policy for “ethnic cleansing” many areas of non-Serb. For it was later that it was to be decided that is was complete and utter genocide towards the innocent.
Laura McEnaney succeeds in sketching ideas about the gender analysis in foreign relations but fails to persuade the readers that gender really mattered. The author starts from the initial impression of gender analysis in diplomatic history and develops it as a vital element to inform policymakers’ decisions. She claims “gender merely adds to the historian’s toolbox”. McEnaney demonstrates gender studies has involved into not only women and femininity but also men and masculinity. The author states the first sign of the study about how gender affects diplomatic history in the Cold War. Nuclear family and family values are mentioned as examples that scholars begin to explore “gender - foreign policy connection.” These examples play well in creating an initial concept about gender analysis. McEnaney implies the struggle of the scholars in determining the “chilly relations” between the United States and Soviet Union after World War II. She believes the