Currently, racism is perpetuated in both societal attitudes and micro-aggressions rather than direct physical attacks on the body (Chakraborty, 2002). As racial tensions continue to both produce and perpetuate inequalities in both class and geography, the direct and indirect implications of those have heaver bearing of those in racial minority groups. In the 1980s, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study showed that African Americans were more than twice as likely than white Americans to not seek treatment for conditions out of fear of hospitalization. Reasons for this increased fear included past negative interactions with healthcare professionals along with historical mistreatment, leading to mistrust (Satcher, 2001). The impacts of historical oppressions and current negative impressions with global healthcare systems are only part of what has caused distortion in mental health outcomes between people of different ethnicities
In a study conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health (2003), researchers addressed mental health disparities between communities of color and the White community in several areas of health and well-being. Results indicated that although the amount of Asian Americans and African Americans students living in Greater Minnesota is relatively small, they reported much higher levels of several key risk behaviors than do their counterpart. More specifically, African Americans tend to score twice as worse as their White counterparts in most areas (sexual activity, fighting, emotional distress, smoking, drinking, family ties, activities, and etc.).
Early feminism was typically focused only on white women, likely because racism was still extremely prominent at the time feminism began emerging. It was not until Kimberlé Crenshaw introduced the term “intersectionality” in 1989 that feminism started to look at oppressed group’s needs (Nash, 2008, 2). Intersectionality is a way of thinking that acknowledges that when a person has identities that belong to more than one oppressed group, it impacts their quality of life more negatively. In this paper, I will argue that intersectionality is important in the discussion of feminist theories and activism because it ensures that feminism is for all women, not just a select group of them. Intersectionality has changed the way the feminist movement handles the overlapping of different identities, which has helped feminist theorists understand the experiences of women of colour much more clearly. While intersectionality has a very important role in the conversation and practice of feminism, there are certainly critiques of the concept that should be brought up. These critiques, however, can offer a way to improve the study of intersectionality.
African-American women have a triple jeopardy status, which places them at risk for developing depression (Boykin, 1985; Carrington, 1980; Taylor, 1992). One whom live in a majority-dominated society that frequently devalues our ethnicity, culture, and gender. In addition, one may find themselves at the lower spectrum of the American political and economic continuum. Often one is involved in multiple roles as one attempt to survive economically and advance ourselves, and our families through mainstream society. All these factors
The need to provide mental health services to culturally diverse clients has increased over the past couple of years due to the increase in racial and ethnic diversity in the United Sates. Consequently, there is a need for mental health professionals to offer effective interventions that address social issues that accompany racial and ethnic diversity (Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi, & Bryant, 2007). Research shows that efforts are being made to implement social justice advocacy strategies and interventions into counseling practices. This growing movement calls for counselors to be agents and advocates for social justice, oppression, and discrimination (Ratts & Hutchins, 2009). Social justice counseling approaches focus on empowering the individual by actively confronting injustices and inequalities that affects clients in their systemic frameworks (Pedersen, Lonner, Draguns, Trimble, & Rio, 2015).
Racism against African Americans and other ethnicities is still prevalent in our society. Salis (2015) mentions a recent poll of Caucasian and African Americans and found that sixty percent of those surveyed felt racial relationships ha vent improved and forty percent felt they were worse. In this paper, I will identify how a counselor can reduce the effects of racism and discrimination that has affected African Americans. Additionally, I will address what role a counselor plays in reducing the stigma of mental illness within the African American community. Furthermore, I will highlight the legal and ethical issues identified in the video
13.2% of the United States population identifies themselves as Black as African Americans, and of those over 16% had an mental illness that was diagnosable. The socio economic impact of a history of slavery, sharecropping and race-based exclusion from health, racism, spiritual beliefs, social and economic resources, education and other factors are key factors that contribute to African American disparities today. Many of these things are linked to mental health. According to the US department of health, African Americans are 20% more likely to report having serious psychological distress than in non-Hispanic whites (. Despite knowing this, African Americans are less likely to seek mental health services than white Americans.
Though it has been apparent that people of color have been treated as a subclass within the medical field for centuries; as was brought to light in The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, the recognition of forced hysterectomies and sterilizations of African American women in the 20th century and, to “The Negro Project” which worked to reduce the African American population through eugenics (Feagin & Bennefield, 2014). With even these three examples it is clear that the medical field has played a large role in creating both psychological and physical disadvantages and trauma for minority groups in America. Yet, it seems to be a subject that many professionals refuse to address. A meta-analysis conducted by Mayberry, Mili and Ofili found that,
Doetsch-Kidder’s (2016) monograph defines the important role of intersectionality as a defining sea-change in the way that women of color began to unify across racial and cultural barriers. Interviews with minority activists define the perception of the diversification of feminist ideology through the lens of intersectionality. One interview with a African-American activist named Donna illustrates the unity between women of color that evolved in the 1970s: “But overall, we are all fighting for civil rights, so there has to be some type of overlap with each one” (Doetsch-Kidder, 2016, p.103). This development defines the “overlapping’ ideology of different feminist groups, which soon began to devolve the racial and cultural barriers not only between women of color, but also with white feminist groups. In Doetsch-Kidder’s (2016) point of view, the civil rights movement laid the foundation for intersectional feminist principles to be practiced for women seeking greater representation in the workplace.
People of different ethnic backgrounds are treated differently due to many kinds of social and multicultural differences people and society. African-Americans within society are treated with prejudice and are stereotyped into negative connotations that can increase distress and impairments such as depression. Behavioral disorders as well as mental illnesses that African-Americans develop throughout their lifespan can show implications on how racism can be a cause of depression when African-Americans are faced with situations that can involve racist views or altercations. This article will provide an overview of how racism towards African-Americans can contribute towards mental health issues within African-American community as
Intersectionality is a framework that must be applied to all social justice work, a frame that recognizes the multiple aspects of identity that enrich our lives and experiences. This framework synthesizes and complicates oppressions and marginalization’s. In the article, “Why Intersectionality Can’t Wait” Kimberle Crenshaw talks about how the purpose of intersectionality has been lost. Intersectional somehow creates an environment of bullying and privilege checking. This society cannot afford to have movements that are not intersectional because all races need to be embraced and have equality.
David R. Williams and Ruth Williams Morris write in “Racism and Mental Health: The African American Experience” that negative attitudes of white Americans resulting in the formation of racist policies contribute to mental health problems for African Americans, as they attempt to cope. Mental health issues, Williams and William Morris continues, can be a consequence of living within a lower income bracket with decreasing prospects for future improvement, an inability to attain needed “resources” e.g. the choice between prescription medications and food, or finally, internalizing the damaging opinions.
Psychosocial factors, such as poverty, lack of access to services, transportation, stigma, (Diala et al., 2000; Dobalian & Rivers, 2008; Townes, Chavez-Korell, & Cunningham, 2009; Whaley, 2001), acculturation and enculturation, family, collectivism and individualism, racial identity, cultural mistrust, help-seeking, religion and spirituality, and finally variability in manifestation and interpretation of distress are key cultural factors in understanding underutilization among African Americans (CITE Goldston et al., 2008). Since attitudes about behaviors are correlated with engaging in the behaviors themselves (CITE Ajzen & Fishbein, 1973), investigating factors that relate to help-seeking attitudes may assist in our understanding of professional mental health services utilization in African American college students. The purpose of this research is to investigate African American College students’ attitudes on seeking professional help for mental health problems, and to differentiate between overall attitudes toward seeking professional help, while taking into account gender, different levels of racial identity and
Mental health disorders remain continually disregarded in minority communities. Even more so, a few minority individuals report symptoms of mood disorders that are under-diagnosed as a result of cultural differences. (“Health Care Reform”, 2014.). This insufficiency in accurate mental health care diagnoses establishes a need to eradicate the differences in health care when it comes to treating minorities, as each group report different symptoms. Furthermore, these minority groups tend to be excluded from mainstream research as a result of lack of formal health care, including underreported visits to mental health facilities. Additionally, now there are more significant amounts of research,
To conclude, Black feminist are constantly striving to overcome sexism, class oppression, and racism. They have also argued that black women are positioned within structures of power in fundamentally different ways than white women (Collins). Black feminist organizations had to overcome three different challenges that no other feminist organization had to face. The first challenge these women faced was to prove to other black women that feminism was not only for white women (Burns). They also had to demand that white women share power with them and affirm diversity, and fight the misogynist tendencies of Black organizations (Burns). Black feminism argues that sexism, class oppression, and racism are inextricably bound together (Collins). All three aspects are related to one another through intersectionality, which is the study of intersections between different disqualified groups or groups of minorities; specifically, the study of the