America’s Uncivil Wars is a book written about the sixties era that captures that provides understanding of how and why events occurred during this period, as well as their historical roots from the time since the Second World War. The author, Mark Hamilton Lytle, used a chronological approach to explain the era by dividing the sixties into three separate phases. The first is the era of consensus, which starts approximately around 1954 and includes the years up to the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. From there, Lytle talks about events in the second phase: the years from 1964 to 1968. These are the years after Kennedy’s death until the
The 1960s are frequently referred to as a period of social protest and dissent. Antiwar demonstrators, civil-rights activists, feminists, and members of various other social groups demanded what they considered to be justice and sought reparation for the wrongs they believed they had suffered. The decade marked a shift from a collective view on politics, to a much more individualistic viewpoint. The 1960s could easily be characterized as a period during which political, ideological, and social tensions among radicals, liberals, and conservatives in American society are seen to have rapidly unfolded. Due to this, the decade has had an overwhelming effect on the decades that have followed. The sixties have had the greatest impact on American society out of any decade in recent history. Whether for better or for worse, the decade has had a profound influence on politics, society, foreign policy, and culture.
In the duration of one year, 1968, the American national mood shifted from general confidence and optimism to chaotic confusion. Certainly the most turbulent twelve months of the post-WWII period and arguably one of the most disturbing episodes the country has endured since the Civil War, 1968 offers the world a glimpse into the tumultuous workings of a revolution. Although the entire epoch of the 1960's remains significant in US history, 1968 stands alone as the pivotal year of the decade; it was the moment when all of the nation's urges toward violence, sublimity, diversity, and disorder peaked to produce a transformation great enough to blanket an entire society. While some may superficially disagree, the evidence found in the Tet
During the 1950’s, Communism was a major fear that Democratic nations such as America were afraid of because of its radical ideas. The actions taken due to the Red Scare and the rise of McCarthyism were necessary and completely justified to protect America’s freedom and government from Communist power. With an increase of Communistic nations invading other countries and forcing their ideas upon them there was an uproar of fear in the United States. The Domino Theory was a legitimate fear of if one nation falling to communism, every nation around it would fall as well. Focusing their attention to VIetnam especially, America increased military control in these regions. Multiple Legislative actions taken by the United States such as the creation of the HAUC and the Espionage and Sedition acts were necessary to stop threats to America’s freedom. The heated tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War contributed to the fear of an attack from the East. Senator McCarthy’s convincing accusations lead to many accurate accusations as well as the rise of McCarthyism. Valid points were brought up about president Roosevelt’s New Deal policies of having capitalistic characteristics. While some actions did take away the civil liberties of some Americans, and were not always accurate, they were necessary to protect American Democracy, as well as the safety of the citizens.
I am writing this paper to reveal and describe different events that have occured over the past 50 years that have had a direct impact on the United States and affected the way we all live today. There are many economical, social, and political events that have helped shaped not only our country, but many other nations around the world as well. This paper is an attempt to reveal and speculate on some of these important events.
Finally, the Warren Court liberalized America in a dramatic way, since that it focused more on the right to privacy, the incorporation of the
“The due process revolution forged during the Warren Court years during the 1960’s by extending the major guarantees of the Bill of Rights to the states took on a life of its own”(407, O’Brien). This meant that the Warren Court did nothing but reaffirm the
Distinctive within American history, the duration in which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1953 to 1969) witnessed a vigorous court fearless to challenge controversial issues. Changing the way Americans today perceive their relationship with their government, an activist court did much to expand the rights of the individual and the power of the federal government to enforce civil rights legislation. Not since then has the Supreme Court generated so much power in shaping American culture. And because of all what Earl Warren has done he is remembered as one of the most influential Supreme Court Justices in American history. Through all the cases during Earl Warren’s tenure I strongly believe that
This thematic standpoint in return provides ground for a second major theme; the 1960s was home to the birth of civil rights movements and forever changed the American idea of the status quo. To a large extent, it is agreeable that that the 1960s serves as the era that led to activism in the US. Anderson is able to confirm and strengthen his standpoint by the fact that it was during one of the greatest milestones of the 1960s, the Vietnam War, that for the first time in the history of the US, the government was subjected to criticism and attacks against their “ways”. This can be evidenced by the fact that Americans, which were majority college students, took to the streets to protest government action. At the time, the policies and actions put forth by the government were seen to be very secretive and wrong. Citizens were hastily informed about the need to stop the spread of communism at the expense of capitalism. Not only were government policies seen as corrupt, the government had kept the American society in the dark concerning the actual situation in Vietnam. There seemed to be no cost that was worth retreating from Vietnam. Draft calls were constantly increasing and the war itself began to result in federal expenditures, deficits, and inflationary pressures ( Anderson 90). For some Americans, the war not only damaging, but unfair. Mexican Americans were the poorest and
The 1960’s transformed American life in ways unimaginable when the decade began. It produced new rights and new understandings of freedom. It made possible the entrance of numerous members of racial minorities into the mainstream of American life, while leaving unsolved the problem of urban poverty. It set in motion a transformation of the status of women. It changed what American expected from government, from clean air and water to medical coverage in old age. At the same time, it undermined public confidence in national leaders.
Cases such as Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Miranda v. Arizona (1966) and Terry v. Ohio (1968) added to the accused party rights. It defined the Warren Court administration era judgements. Similarly, the Miranda rights case changed the course of criminal procedures in the country. The landmark Supreme Court case, Miranda v. Arizona (1966), forced states to comply with their judgement to avoid violating a person’s Fifth Amendment right. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, a part of the amendment states, “nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself” (U.S. Constitution). The Supreme Court changed the conduct of police officers with a person held in custody (Long 149). Basically, the protect individuals from incriminating against their selves. The Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Supreme Court case allowed defendants to receive lawyers to help them in serious cases (Johnson 148). Then, the Terry v. Ohio (1968) Supreme Court decision allowed police officers to conduct reasonable sources without a warrant (Johnson 154). These cases represent a time in U.S. history where supports of individual rights would find victory in the court. The exception of those would be the Terry case where the Justices would put a limit of the warrants controversy. With that being said, future similar court cases limited the scope of the original decisions. Nevertheless, progress was made during
The United States had appeared to be dominated by consensus and conformity in the 1950s. As the commotions of the first half of the century ended, people were relieved but faced oncoming internal issues. The Great Depression and the two Great Wars caused people to seek tranquility and harmony. The fifties were the decade of change led by president Eisenhower. During this time the nation was in an up rise in many ways. The economy was booming as the Gross National Product more than doubled from the past decade. Thus there was a rise in consumer spending which had a domino effect on the economy. Though it was unexpected, many issues arrived such as the fear of communism and the suspicion of communists hiding in the government. At this period
The unrest of the 1960s reached a boiling point in 1968, a year that can be considered the most turbulent year in American history. The tumultuous events that took place in 1968 effectively transformed the face of the nation in every aspect; economically, socially, and politically. Failed military tactics, assassinations, and violent civil rights movements were the defining characteristics of 1968. Despite the few good things that came out of that year, much of 1968 was dedicated to rebuilding the country, tragedy after tragedy. The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, involvement in the Vietnam War, and escalating civil rights movements are a few of the quintessential events that contributed to
American history has had many defining moments over the last five decades which has helped America to develop to the way it is today. Each decade holding many life changing events and discoveries in them it would take a long time to cover each and every one of these so I have chosen a major event that I find to be of great worth to Americans today. We can all learn from the past events and work together to make American a safer and better place to live, and one way to do so is by learning from the past. Starting in the 1950’s we will discuss the most life changing and breath taking moments from each decade that this great county has seen through the 90’s and discover why they are all of significant value to the America we all live in
In the 1960s unions did little in promoting equity in the work force. Unions were criticized for being “insensitivity to the aspirations of black people" (Zieger, p. 216) discrimination and segregation still occurred in the labor movements, for instance, AFL-CIO was often disapproved for dragging cases which involves discrimination and exclusion of black workers unlike the immediate attention given to their affiliates charged with communist influence and corruption (Zieger, p. 220-221).