What Were The Consequences Of Muslim Rule Of India?

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From the 8th to 16h centuries C.E., Muslim invaders repeatedly attacked the Indian subcontinent. These conquerors, originally Arab and Persian but later Turkish, gradually expanded their control until by 1500 all but the southernmost edge of India was under Muslim rule. How did these Muslim forces conquer such a large area of land? Why were the powerful India kingdoms unable to defend against these incursions? Why were Muslim rulers so persistent in their aims? What were the consequences of Muslim rule in India? In the 7th century Arab Muslim conquerors had swept the world, reaching as far as North Africa and Afghanistan from their humble start on the Arabian Peninsula. However, the Northwest entrance to the subcontinent of India was perilous and cold, making a land invasion from Afghanistan near impossible. Furthermore, the Caliphs had been stopped in their advance by Carthaginians and Berbers in Africa, making them unwilling to commit forces to the eastern empire which had been mostly subdued. Thus no major land invasion would be launched for several decades. Despite this, individual Muslim merchants hailing from the Persian gulf initiated several naval expeditions, raiding and looting towns on the west coast of India. They made no territorial gains, however, and desired only plunder. (Jackson 4.) The conquest of India was executed mostly through the strategical genius of a few key individuals, as well as technological advantages on the side of the Muslims and petty
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