What is Acute Renal Failure?

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Acute renal failure is a disorder of the urinary system. It involves the loss of kidney function and may occur suddenly. Acute renal failure occurs when blood flow to the kidneys is decreased. There are numerous reasons why there may be a decrease in renal function. A urinary tract obstruction, low blood pressure, illness, inflammation of the kidneys, and harmful substances are examples of causes of acute renal failure. These causes have different origins. The causes are separated into prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal. Prerenal causes of acute renal failure are caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure. It may also be due to an "interruption of blood flow to the kidneys from severe injury or illness"(Stanbridge College, 2014). Prerenal is the most common cause of acute renal failure. Intrarenal is caused by harmful substances, infection, and inflammation. These cause direct damage to the kidneys. Postrenal is due to a decrease in urine flow. Obstruction of urine may be caused by renal calculi, injury, strictures, an enlarged prostate, or a tumor in the bladder. Acute renal failure is associated with decreased urine output. Further lab results can confirm acute renal failure. Diagnostics that can confirm ARF test BUN, creatinine, phosphorous, potassium, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and bicarbonate levels. There will be in increase in BUN, creatinine, potassium and phosphorous levels. ARF test results will also show a decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrite, and bicarbonate

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