According to the CDC, cardiovascular disease claims 614,348 lives in 2014 making it the leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 46.9% of all deaths in 2014. This percentage is estimated to increase threefold by the end of 2016 (Heron, 2016). This is a significant issue, mainly because, for the most part this is a preventable ailment. If not closely control, this can quickly become an epidemic as the overall death rate increase each year. To fully understand this disease, we need to first look at the root cause, coronary artery disease.
Coronary artery disease remains number one killer of the western civilization despite 40 years of aggressive drug and surgical interventions (Esselstyn). Usually, pharmaceutical drugs, such as statin, are given to try to slow the progression, but may provide uncomfortable side effects. In fact, the majority of patients discontinue statins within 1 year of treatment initiation (Maningat). Furthermore, surgery is performed to circumvent clogged arteries and literally bypass the symptoms. In the last year, 500,000 coronary bypass procedures were performed (Swaminathan et al). However, these surgeries can have significant risks, including the potential to cause further heart damage, stroke, and brain dysfunction. Thus, it is evident that these way of treatments may not be enough on its own, and that getting to the
One of the patient’s secondary diagnoses is atherosclerotic heart disease of native coronary artery without angina pectoris. He had a heart valve replacement in 2011. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque made of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances builds up inside the arteries. This is an issue because the plaque hardens over time and narrows the arteries, which then limits the flow of oxygenated blood to vital tissues. This condition can lead to heart attacks, strokes, and death. Coronary artery atherosclerosis is the single largest killer of both men and women in the United States (Boudi, 2016). The patient’s atherosclerosis is located in the coronary artery. This artery is one of two main blood vessels that branch off
W.P. is a 65-year-old Caucasian male. He was alert & oriented x3, and he appeared comfortable and relaxed. He was in no apparent state of distress or acute illness, his facial expressions were appropriate to the situation, and he maintained a comfortable level of eye contact throughout the exam. His clothing was clean, appropriately fitted, appropriate to the setting, the season, and his age, and there were no breath or body odors noted. His speech was distinct and moderately paced, and his word choice was fluid and effortless. His gait was also well balanced and smooth, and he did not use an assistive device. He is 5’7” (177cm) tall, and he weighs 210 lbs (95.5 kg).
Atherosclerosis a chronic, inflammatory disease of the medium and large arteries, peripheral arteries, carotid and the aorta is a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease and the leading cause of death worldwide. Aherosclerotic plaque formation is a local process in the vessel wall with symptoms in the specific area, though the possibility of plaque formation at the same time and in different areas of the vasculature, regards the disease as systemic one1-3. Furthermore it is recognized that atherosclerotic carotid arteries pose a substantial risk of ipsilateral cerebrovascular events, with reported annual ischemic stroke rates ranging from .35% to 1.3% in asymptomatic patients with moderate stenosis4,5 and from .5% to
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of coronary heart disease, the number one killer of Americans (). The inflammatory process is known to lead to a myriad of other cardiovascular complications including, coronary heart disease, stroke and myocardial infarctions. It is important
Atherosclerosis is associated with the major killer ailments in America, which include strokes, heart attacks, as well as peripheral vascular disease. The condition arises when there are a narrowing and hardening of the arteries. This is usually a gradual process, and it slowly blocks the arteries. When this happens, it will impede smooth blood flow. It is estimated that at least one million Americans lost their lives to a condition associated with atherosclerosis for the past few years.
Studies have demonstrated that IMAs whenever used for CABG are resistance to developing of atherosclerosis and lasts longer when compared with saphenous venous grafts. In addition to longer IMA patency, survival has been reported to be significantly higher in patients who received IMAs CABG compared with saphenous vein grafts [4,5,6].
Atherosclerosis is a reduction of the arteries triggered by a buildup of plaque. It is also called arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. Arteries are the blood vessels that transport oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body. As the body gets older, fat and cholesterol can collect in the arteries and form plaque. The buildup of plaque makes it difficult for blood to flow through the arteries. This buildup may transpire in any artery in the body and can result in a shortage of blood and oxygen in various tissues of the body. Pieces of plaque can also break off, causing a blood clot. If left untreated, atherosclerosis can lead to heart attack, stroke, and heart failure. Atherosclerosis is a fairly common problem associated with aging. According to the University of Maryland
One source of great mortality and morbidity in Europe and North America is the cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis. It is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease of the intermediate and large arteries characterized by the thickening of the arterial wall and is the primary cause of coronary and cerebrovascular heart disease (Wilson, 2005). It accounts for 4.35 million deaths in Europe and 35% death in the UK each year. Mortality rate are generally higher in men than pre-menopausal woman. Past the menopause, a woman’s risk is similar to a man’s (George and Johnston, 2010). Clinical trials have confirmed that lipid accumulation, endothelial dysfunction, cell proliferation, inflammation matrix alteration and foam cell formation are
Organ donation provided a new therapeutic path when new drugs and devices failed to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate of patients with such illnesses as cardiovascular diseases. By replacing damaged organs or tissue with a functioning substitute, organ transplantation offers an immediate cure. Unfortunately, this “cure” is never guaranteed because of the high risk of graft rejection and that’s if a suitable donor can be found. Thus, tissue engineering has been the projected new treatment for these problems. Tissue engineering replaces the diseased or damaged tissue or organs with biofabricated counterparts made using the specifications dictated by the features of the specific tissue or organ.
There is no cure for peripheral arterial disease however with lifestyle changes and medication symptoms can be reduced. Lifestyle changes such as; Exercising more regular is important because it conditions the muscles to use the oxygen it is receiving more efficiently. Eating a healthier diet will help control blood pressure and cholesterol levels which contribute to atherosclerosis. Smoking is a big factor in developing and worsening peripheral arterial disease, by quitting smoking the risk of complications will be reduced. Avoiding certain cold medication is also important as these may restrict blood vessels and aggregate the symptoms. Taking care of feet are very important this can be done by washing, drying and moisturising daily, wearing
“Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery is a widely used surgical procedure for the relief of symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease” (Bagielia, Connerney, McLaughlin, Shapiro, & Sloan, 2001, p. 1766). Coronary Artery Disease is the narrowing of the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles. The buildup of fatty material within the walls of the arteries causes cardiac diseases (Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery,, 2010) .To resolve this issue, surgeons take veins and arteries from elsewhere in the patient’s body. Then, surgeons graft the veins and arteries to the coronary arteries to bypass the atherosclerotic narrowing and improve the blood supply to the heart muscles (Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery,, 2010). This procedure increases the blood flow to the heart by giving the blood a new route around the diseased or clogged artery (Bagielia, Connerney, McLaughlin, Shapiro, & Sloan, 2001).
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as heart disease, is defined as the “narrowing or blockage of the arteries and vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart” (Milto, Odle, p.1). The main cause of CAD is an accumulation of fatty materials on the lining of arteries. Once the fatty materials line the inner arteries, it restricts blood flow to the heart. When blood is can no longer long flow to the heart, it causes a heart attack. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in both women and men in the United States. The American Heart Association states that since 1990 deaths caused by the coronary artery disease have decreased, however, “more than 40,000 people still died from this disease in 2000” and about 13
Obstruction is the action of obstructing or the state of being obstructed. An obstruction disease is a disease that impedes or prevents passage or progress of blood through the veins or arteries inthe body. Coronary artery disease, also known as atherosclerotic heart disease, is damage or disease to heart's major blood vessels, the arteries. Coronary artery disease is usually caused by a buildup of plaque. This buildup of plaque causes the arteries to become narrow and harder, which limits blood flow to the heart. People that get coronary artery disease can be asymptomatic and not experience any symptoms. But people may experience chest pain, indigestion or nausea, light headness, or sweating, fast heart rate or shortness of breath. CAD has