What is Diabetes Mellitus? Essay

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What is Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes is a very common disorder. It is the 8th leading cause of death worldwide. It is projected that the number of individuals with diabetes will almost double by 2030. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. The most common feature seen in diabetes is increased blood glucose levels. The main reason for this is either a decreased/ absent insulin production or resistance of the body to the action of insulin or both. The elevated blood glucose levels can lead to long-term complications, especially, in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Diabetes Mellitus can be classified into three main types: Type 1 - Insulin-dependent…show more content…
Although it is mostly seen in individuals younger than 30 years, the onset can occur at any age. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus This is the most common type of Diabetes. In Type 2 Diabetes, the body does not respond adequately to insulin. Thus, even in the presence of insulin, the cells cannot effectively take up glucose and hence the blood glucose increases. This puts an extra strain on the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete more insulin to normalize the blood glucose, to the point that they get fatigued and can no longer keep up and hence relative deficiency of insulin develops. This leads to a further increase in the blood glucose. The impaired insulin function also disturbs the fat metabolism, resulting in increased free fatty acid and triglyceride levels, and at the same time leads to a decrease in the High-density lipoproteins (HDL) which are said to be the ‘good fats’. Gestational Diabetes (GDM) It is defined as an increase in blood glucose levels diagnosed during the pregnancy and induced by the pregnancy. The hormones secreted by the placenta lead to the development of an insulin resistant state which is more pronounced during the last three months of the pregnancy. If uncontrolled, it can lead to abnormalities and complications in both the mother and the baby. It can lead to malformation of the heart/kidneys of the baby, low birth weight or even a large baby
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