What is Tuberculosis or TB?

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Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a chronic infection that can be fatal to the infected individual which can result in death. TB is a bacterial infection in the lungs that can persist to other organs through the bloodstream. It is one of the leading causes of death from an infection worldwide. The mortality rate is much higher in developing countries with high incidence rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Tuberculosis is a very infectious disease due to it being airborne. If it is left untreated the disease can progress to other areas of the body. Areas such as kidneys, spine, and the brain can be infected. With proper treatment, TB is curable.
TB is a disease of the lungs. This disease can spread to other areas of the body and
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TB infection that happens outside of the lungs are known as extra pulmonary TB (EPTB). According to a research in the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, “EPTB constitutes about 15 to 20 percent of all cases of tuberculosis in immune-competent patients and accounts for more than 50 per cent of the cases in HIV-positive individuals.” Some forms of EBTB are Miliary TB or disseminated TB, Genitourinary TB, and TB meningitis. Miliary TB, also known as disseminated TB occurs when a TB lesion breaks and comes into contact with the bloodstream and is carried throughout the body. This has great impacts on the bone marrow as well as the lungs but generally any site can potentially be impacted. This type of TB is common in children less than 4 years old, immune compromise individuals, and the elderly. Genitourinary TB is TB of the kidneys. This type of TB infection can spread the bladder. It also has different effects on men and women. For men, the infection would spread to areas like the prostate and surrounding reproductive organs, resulting in a scrotal mass. For women, this would affect the fallopian tube and symptoms such as pelvic pain can develop. According Nature Reviews Urology, “Genitourinary Tuberculosis (GUTB) is the second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with more than 90% of cases occurring in developing countries.” 90% of people who are infected with GUTB are from developing countries. In 2008, India

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