Essay on What is a Neuron?

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What is a Neuron?
Human brain consists of billions of cells interconnected together, with each performing its separate functions. It consists of two explicit categories of nerves: neurons and glia cells. Neuron is a single nerve cell in the entire nervous system; which is electrically excitable cell that carries information after being processed via chemical or electrical signals. One of its key characteristics is that it does not undergo cell division. In addition, it maintains a voltage gradient for all the neurons across its membranes. Glia cells, on the other hand, its functionality is to maintain homeostasis.

Different Components of a Neuron
Neuron cell is made from numerous components: soma, dendrites, axon, and axon terminal. Soma “cell body” is the most important component of a neuron, as it produces the bulky part of protein synthesis. In addition, it also encapsulates the nucleus of the cell. Dendrites have fiber-like texture, where it serves as a tool in reception of information originating from other neurons. Axon is responsible for transmitting messages away from the soma and towards other cells via tree-looking branch endings called axon terminal.

Data Transmission between two Neurons
Information gets transmitted across billions of neurons in the human brain as electrical and chemical signals. The process of sending out information to the adjacent neuron is called presynaptic. On the other hand, procedure of receiving information is…