Essay on What is a Neuron?

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What is a Neuron? Human brain consists of billions of cells interconnected together, with each performing its separate functions. It consists of two explicit categories of nerves: neurons and glia cells. Neuron is a single nerve cell in the entire nervous system; which is electrically excitable cell that carries information after being processed via chemical or electrical signals. One of its key characteristics is that it does not undergo cell division. In addition, it maintains a voltage gradient for all the neurons across its membranes. Glia cells, on the other hand, its functionality is to maintain homeostasis.

Different Components of a Neuron Neuron cell is made from numerous components: soma, dendrites, axon, and
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Whenever the balance is altered, the process of transmitting electrical signals, which is called action potential initiates by carrying information across a neuron’s axon; which is called resting membrane potential. This process occurs as uneven ions distribution flow across cell membrane, creating electrical potential. As a result, the duration of active potential can be as fast as 1 ms. Similarly, the average resting membrane is between -40 mV and -80 mV. Since the membrane from inside is more negatively charged than the outside, it reflected on the negative average voltage readings of the resting membrane. As soon as the electrical signal reaches the end of the axon, mechanism of chemical alteration initiates. First, calcium ion spurt into the axon terminal, leading to the release of neurotransmitters “molecules released neurons which carries information to the adjacent cell”. Next, inside the axon terminal, neurotransmitter molecules are stored inside a membrane sac called vesicle. Finally, the neurotransmitter molecule is then discharged in synapse space to be delivered to post synaptic neuron.

Chemical Transmission – Graded Potential Graded potential is one of the methods of transmission of chemical information from one neuron to another. It occurs in specific regions in neural cell, such as: post-synaptic plasma membrane “dendrite or soma” or regions of sensory stimuli reception. Difference in levels of chemical concentration causes

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