Recurrent UTI is defined as a UTI (proven by culture) with episodes of uncomplicated UTI for more than three times a year or more than two episodes in 6 months. The incidence of rUTI was high in primary care setting, ranging from 36% in younger women to 53% in women above 55 years.6 Other study showed that at least one rUTI occurred in 27% of young college-age women who experienced their first UTI.7 There are several factors which may affect the occurence of rUTI, those risk factors are varied between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women, sexual intercourse (recent intercourse/new sexual partners), use of spermicide and diaphragm are the most common risk factors, followed by maternal history, previous case of UTI before 15 years of age, genetics, pelvic anatomy and distance between urethra and anus. On the other hand, postmenopausal women are tend to experience rUTI due to estrogen deficiency, cystocoele, history of urogenital surgery, high post-void volume, previous UTI, and alteration of normal vaginal flora. In
In the human body, there are systems that provide different functions and help the body to operate more efficiently. The urinary system is one in particular designed to help the body remain free of excess that we no longer need. “The urinary tract is the drainage system used for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. The kidneys are a pair of “bean-shaped” organs, each about the size of a fist. The kidneys are located below the ribs, one on each side of the spine, towards the middle of the back.” (NIDDK, 2013) Every several minutes, your kidneys filter around three ounces of blood, also then removing wastes and extra water. That extra water and
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) are miserable. Recurrent ones are a whole other level of misery. But, you don't have to just resign yourself to suffering. Many people have managed to stop having a UTI every time they turn around by making changes to their diet and hygiene habits.
UTI stands for urinary tract infection, and it is an infection that occurs in kidneys, urethra, ureters, bladders, and any other part of urinary system in the body. According to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), UTIs are proven to be the most common type of health care-associated infection. Among UTIs acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% of patients are associated with catheter, and around 15-25% of them receive urinary catheter when they are in hospital (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
The two types of urinary tract infections are infection of the bladder (Cystitis) and infection of the urethra (urethritis). Cystitis is a type of UTI which is caused by Escherichia coli, a type of bacteria that is normally found in the gastrointestinal tract (www.webmd.com). Although sexual intercourse can cause this type of urinary tract infection, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have to be sexually active to develop it. Every female is at risk for this type of UTI due to the shortness of distance from the urethral opening to the bladder and the urethra to the anus.
The four specific databases that were used in this research are, Cinahl, Medline, Joanna Briggs and Cochrane Library. All of these databases were chosen because they provided up to date peer reviewed evidence that was relevant to the search terms. This ensures that the evidence that was found was relevant and reliable. The Cinahl website was useful to gather background information on the topic such as how a UTI is contracted and how it effects the body. The Cochrane Library and Medline website was useful to because it gave specific information on studies that had already been done by other researchers. This helped to ensure that the study that is being undertaken was searching for the right results.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2017), “Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the fourth most common type of healthcare-associated infection, with an estimated 93,300 UTIs in acute care hospitals in 2011. UTIs additionally account for more than 12% of infections reported by acute care hospitals. Virtually all healthcare-associated UTIs are caused by instrumentation of the urinary tract” (p. 7-1).
Authors suggested that the accurate diagnosis of a UTI will play a role in the cost-effective medical care and appropriate antimicrobial utilization. The objective of the article is to summarize the top ten, misconceptions of UTI that result in extraneous testing and antimicrobial treatment. This article is well organized, consist of an abstract, introduction, list the myths with mistaken beliefs pertaining to diagnosis, a discussion and conclusion. One reason this article was of an interesting choosing was, due to myth number, “falls and acute altered mental status changes in the elderly patient are usually caused by UTI.” The article suggests that elderly patients with acute mental status changes accompanied by bacteriuria, pyuria without clinical instability or other signs or symptoms of UTI can reasonably be observed for resolution of confusion for 24-48 hours without antibiotics, which searching for other causes. The article describes in detail that elderly patients with acute mental status change and functional decline are nonspecific and are clinical manifestation of several circumstances such as, dehydration, hypoxia, and ploy-pharmacy adverse reaction. In the discussion section, the article also suggests that an increase in education and evidence-based guidelines aimed at physicians, advance practice
T.M. was admitted to the sub-acute unit for an UTI. UTI is usually cause by an organism called Escherichia coli. Risk factors for UTI in males can be bladder stones, kidney stones, an enlarge prostate, catheter use, or bacterial prostatitis. Some of the symptoms of UTI are burning sensation when urinating, frequent urination, fever, chills, foul smelling urine, urine retention, and lethargy. T.M. has a diagnosis of BPH and repeated history of UTI which increase his risk for UTI. A short-term goal will be that the patient will be display no UTI sign of symptoms. A long-term goal will be that the patient will demonstrate behavioral techniques to prevent future UTI. To accomplish these goals, the patient should be encouraged to void every 2 to
UTI’s is an all too common problem that causes unnecessary distress to patients and delays their recovery during their hospital stay. All healthcare professionals should adhere to these good practice points that could reduce the risk of UTI’s and assure staff that they are demonstrating best practice in their care.
Nearly 1 in 3 women will have had at least 1 episode of UTI requiring antimicrobial therapy by the age of 24 years. Specific subpopulations at increased risk of UTI include infants, pregnant women, the elderly, patients with spinal cord injuries and/or catheters, patients with diabetes or multiple sclerosis, patients with acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus, and patients with underlying urologic abnormalities. There are important medical and financial implications associated with UTIs. In the nonobstructed, nonpregnant female adult, acute uncomplicated UTI is believed to be a benign illness with no long-term medical consequences. However, UTI elevates the risk of pyelonephritis, premature delivery, and fetal mortality among pregnant women, and is associated with impaired renal function and end-stage renal disease among pediatric
Bacterial urinary tract infections represent the most common type of nosocomial infections. Often, the ability of bacteria to both establish and maintain these infections are directly related to biofilm formation on indwelling devices or within the urinary tract itself (30). Enterococci (especially E. faecalis) are one of the main causative agents of urinary tract infection and Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) besides gram-negative pathogens (31, 32). In these infections Biofilm provides a favorable milieu for microbial survival within the host as the organisms are shielded from the host immune response, as well as antibiotics and antimicrobial agents (33, 34). Several studies conducted to introduce main virulence genes of enterococci that are associated with biofilm formation in these bacteria (11, 13,-17), but virulence mechanism and related genes for biofilm formation are not well understood (35). In this study we investigated biofilm formation of clinical enterococci isolates isolated from Urinary tract infections. These strains were characterized for presence of adhesions and secretory virulence factors. Isolates had diverse presence of virulence from lack to highest amount of virulence genes. Several previous studies investigated relation of virulence genes and biofilm formation, especially presence of esp and gel. Enterococci esp has been implicated as a contributing factor in colonization and persistence of infection within the urinary tract