The purpose of this experiment was we were trying to see if the number of arthropods would be significantly different in sparse and dense areas of the woods. Ms.Ehnert provided us with the design of a trap to set up in the woods so we could more actually count the amount and types of bugs that we find. The trap was a cup filled with anti-freeze that we put in the ground and then covered it with a paper plait, but raised it so bugs could get in and bigger animals couldn’t. We waited for a week to collect the results and then counted all of them and sorted them. My hypothesis was based off of common sense, the simple assumption that less trees equals less arthropods and more trees equals more arthropods. I knew that living things need a habitat
Predominant life fuel resource changed during the body development. ATP is mainly sourced from glucose at fetal phase, then gradually shift to fatty acid metabolism after birth. Studies proved that individuals born with a low birth weight (LBW) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life, which glucose transport and related metabolism involved. In this paper, author use the lamb as the IUGR model, tried to find out the effect of changes in the intrauterine environment that result in LBW on key regulatory proteins involved in cardiac glucose metabolism, glucose transport and fatty acid metabolism.
The outcome of this lab proved for the prediction to be true. The organisms in the aquatic chamber died out and the water quality slowly deteriorated before the lab ended. Although the organisms eventually died, there was a time when the aquatic chamber was able to support life. The aquatic chamber had its own food chain where the fish ate the plant to stay alive. Furthermore, the water quality of the chamber began to deteriorate over the few weeks becoming a cloudy murky brown color.
The revolution of technology has made it possible to discover new medical drugs better than centuries before. Since the dawn of time, mankind has always sought out ways to protect, heal and even prolong their life from even the most death threating of diseases, but as quick as new medical cures arrive on shelfs, so too does mankind’s resistance to these new medical drugs as well. Most drugs today are derived from plant molecules found on land; such as, aspirin from willow bark, and morphine from poppies (Krajick). Researcher’s today look past the land and toward the vast ocean for answers to today’s most common diseases. In understanding more about marine organisms, researchers can unlock beneficial knowledge to discovering better medical breakthroughs for the future for potential pharmaceutical and therapeutic uses.
Proteins belongs to diverse class of macromolecules made of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids that provide structure and support to cell (1). These proteins are encoded by specific genes to carry out the cell cycle progression (3). CDK2 gene encodes a protein which belongs to Ser/Thr protein kinase family (3). This complex is necessary for G2/M and G1/S phase conversions of cell cycle in eukaryotes (4). Cyclin dependent 2 kinase, a protein encoding gene is associated with several diseases such as breast cancer and star syndrome (1). Cdk2 was better understood in S. cerevisiaeas model organism with 75 targets of cdk2 controlling transcriptional regulation, replication, morphogenesis and segregation (1). CDK2 is well known to bring some dynamic effects in the 3D representation of proteins (2).
Proteins are responsible for things like enzymes, antibodies, structure, transport, storage, and messaging. In order for proteins to function properly and provide these functions in the body, deoxyribonucleic acid is (DNA) required. DNA provides ribonucleic acid (RNA) that is translated into a certain protein. These concepts lay the foundation for labs 5 through 7.
It is triggered by Dicer, an enzyme that assists in the activation of the RNA induced silencing complex, an important component for RNAi in fungi, plants, and animals, according to the article, “Pathway Central: RNAi Pathway”. The process is first activated by dsRNA molecules and requires a specific set of gene products. The dsRNA is then cut into smaller pieces by the Dicer enzyme in an ATP-dependent reaction. The dsRNA in fungi, animals, and plants are exogenous, meaning that the RNA is directly sent to the cytoplasm and cut into shorter lengths by Dicer. As of yet, endogenously expressed dsRNA molecules have not been discovered in mammals, where the RNA would first be shaped into the stem- loop structure in the nucleus, then sent to the cytoplasm to be further modified by Dicer. In RISC, the enzyme Dicer also supplies the initial RNA material to activate the complex as well as the first RNA substrate molecule. RISC with a bound siRNA targets complementary mRNA molecules and degrades them, resulting in lower levels of protein translation and the eventual inhibition of the
The two experiments performed in this lab to determine the factors that affect cell growth. Part 1 was used to determine the effects of differential media and other conditions necessary for cell growth. The second part studies how cells respond in suspension and the formation of Multicell Tumor Spheroids (MTS). The cells were initially calculated using the Neubauer method, the cells were then separated in certain concentrations to be transferred to variously prepared plates and wells. It was expected that a higher amount of growth would occur in IDMEM media compared to MEM media. This was due to the richer nutrients of the IDMEM media. While the amino acids, glucose, and vitamins that are not found in MEM media restrict the growth of cells. Similarly, the IDMEM media with 10% serum was also expected to have more growth than the MEM with 10% serum due to its richer nutrients. Therefore, the IDMEM with 10% serum should have the most abundant growth, followed by IDMEM, MEM with 10% serum and finally MEM with the least amount of growth. The 10% serum also affects the cells, serum contains growth factors and adhesion factors that are responsible for cell proliferation and cell attachments. The plates that consisted of agarose should also show
No cell lives in isolation. Cells need to communicate between each other in order for all biological live on Earth to exist. There are several types of cellular signalling (neural, endocrine, exocrine, paracrine, autocrine). In most cases signals are released by signalling cells. These signalling molecules recognise and bind to specific receptors on the target cell. In order for the signal to be generated in most cases there has to be an environmental change.
Perhaps one of the greatest features of marine life is that, compared to land, there is more biodiversity found in the ocean. This is directly due to the intricate and specialized genetic composition that make up the DNA of marine organisms. Comprehensively, over 20,000 organic compounds have been collected from marine organisms (National Research Council, 2007). Of the 36 phyla found on the planet, 94% of them are found in the ocean. In comparison to the 47% found on land, this diversity is arguably the main reason why the ocean holds so much biomedical potential and promise (Targett et al., 2002). In fact, jellyfish and corals are organisms that are not found anywhere else but in the ocean (Marris, 2006). Furthermore, according to the National
Proteins are large complex molecules that are made of one or more chains of amino acids. They play an important role in the cellular life as they are involved in human’s physiology. Many diseases in humans are caused by mutations in DNA coding. These mutations lead to defective proteins. Investigating these diseases can be very challenging because using human subjects for research involve many health risks and the long human’ life span results in the lack of information about the genomic aspect of these diseases. In order to overcome these constraints, researchers use non-humans’ models to study human diseases. Indeed, many studies have revealed proteins homology among organisms. Proteins that share the same family and functions are categorized as protein domains. These
Oceanic drug development should further become a priority due to its ability to produce highly effective drugs: both history and lab studies attest to this fact. Compounds derived from ocean microbes and other organisms are often highly effective at treating a wide range of critical conditions, wiping out pathogens with remarkable efficiency. Martinez and Rusch, two researchers from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies found oceanic drugs are “six times more productive than industry standards.” For a time in which diseases are advancing and patients are dying, effective and potent medicines are critical- oceanic medicines are the key to an impending medical crises. Outdated industry standards are based on terrestrial compounds
Human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus that affects the T cells specifically to the immune system. In spite of, lowering the immunity of humans and claiming the lives of many people around world. H.I.V replication is a multi- stage process and every step is necessary to complete its process. (“T Cell”) In step one, the entry of the virus requires certain receptors from the host cell such as a CD4. In addition, these receptors are composed of two glycoproteins that are embedded in the viral envelope. (“Kestens, P.”) By approaching the target, the cells of a gp120 connects to the CD4 receptors and the transmembrane gp41 is capable of transferring its information into the cell membrane. Uniquely, this process creates a pathway for the virus to fuse with the host cell. When it enters the cell it breaks open and releasing two viral RNA strands and three essential replication enzymes.
A proposed collaborative project between different established multidisciplinary team, aims to isolate and characterized various bioactive molecules from marine microalga. Marine microalgae, have been already used as food, feed and fertilizers, cosmetic and pharmaceuticals for centuries, and nowadays approximately 200 species are used worldwide in different sectors. Marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients that could improve health status. Consumers are searching for food products that will help them prevent and fight diseases, increase their energy and wellness, and help them live longer, healthier, and productive