Why Are Metallic And Covalent Bonding?

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Metallic and Covalent Bonding:
All matter is composed of building blocks in the form of atoms. Atoms consist of three subatomic particles, protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons are positively charged, neutrons have no charge and together they form the nucleus in the centre of the atom. Electrons are negatively charged and form shells in which they orbit the nucleus. Figure 1
Each shell has a maximum number of electrons it can contain, with the first shell containing up to 2, the second shell containing up to 8 and the third shell containing up to 18. However, each electron shell follows the octet rule and generally only contains a maximum of 8 electrons. The electrons that are located in an atom’s outermost shell are called valence electrons. Atoms are arranged on the periodic table with the horizontal rows, called periods corresponding to the number of electron shells in an atom and the vertical columns, called groups corresponding to the number of valence electrons in an atom. The reactivity of an atom and its tendency to interact and form bonds with other atoms is determined by the number and distribution of the electrons. This arrangement allows these properties to be predicted easily.
Atoms aim to have a complete valence shell of eight electrons and achieve this through bonding. Bonding involves either the gaining, losing or sharing of valence electrons, depending on which electron transfer requires the least energy to complete and differs for metals, non-metals
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