The functions of the renal system, which are performed by the kidneys, are to regulate and maintain the balance of electrolytes and the pH of the fluid that has been processed. It assists in the production of new red blood cells and it also involved in the maintenance of blood pressure.
The physiological overview involves the kidneys processing blood by eliminating any excess mineral salts, urea and water as this provides homeostasis and it enables the body to work effectively. The nephron (which is part of the kidneys) for
As the lab introduction explains, osmosis is relatively permeable to water and will follow solutes. By instinct, the water will move from a more diluted solution to more of a concentrated solution. The products of the experiments concluded the physiological significance of osmosis by how cell membranes in the body are semipermeable meaning that only certain molecules can pass through it. When intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid are at equilibrium by non-penetrating and concentrated solutes, no net movement of water goes in and out of the cell. Furthermore, if the ECF changes in osmolality, then depending on the difference between the ECF and ICF will determine whether water moves in or out of the cell. This is important in the cell membrane as small differences in osmolarity correspond to large, rapid change in osmotic pressure, causing cells to gain or lose water. In sum, our body makes critical decisions in what molecules are allowed to penetrate the cell membrane and make sure that our red blood cells don’t cause any problems within the
Kidneys are complex organs that are very important when it comes to the many functions to help maintain the health of the body. This includes the maturation of the red blood cells, regulation of blood pressure as well as secretion of hormones. The Secondary functions of the filtration effect the controlling of the acid base balance in the body, and maintaining bone health (livingstrong.com).
There is a pair of kidneys in the human body. They are situated towards the back of the body under the ribs, just at the level of the waist where one on either side of the body. Each kidney is composed of about one million units which are called nephrons and each nephron consists of two parts: a filter which is called the glomerulus and a tubule leading out from the nephron (Cameron 1999). According to Marshall and Bangert (2008) the kidneys have three major functions. Firstly, the kidneys are excretion of waste from plasma in the blood. The second function is that, they maintain of extracellular fluid volume and composition. Lastly, the kidneys have a role in hormone synthesis.
Brenner (2007) explained that the primary function of the kidneys is to excrete waste products resulting from metabolism by filtering them out of the bloodstream into urine. The kidneys also have many homeostatic functions such as maintaining acid-base homeostasis and electrolyte concentrations, and regulating plasma osmolarity and blood pressure (Brenner, 2007). The kidneys secret and interact with a variety of hormones such as
The kidneys act as chemical factories of the body and have many functions. They act in balancing the level of water within the body, regulating the concentration of important ions such as sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and others, maintaining blood plasma volume, maintaining the proper acid-base balance in the body, excreting waste products of metabolism as well as foreign compounds, and to produce hormones. Their primary functional unit is a nephron and is the smallest unit capable of producing
To understand what renal failure is, it is important to know how the kidneys work and what the main functions are. The body has two kidneys on either side of the spine and the kidneys work to remove toxic waste and excess water by producing urine. The kidneys also help with controlling blood pressure and produce erythropoietin as well as aiding in keeping bones strong by producing calcetrol hormones. When the kidneys are unable to perform these functions it causes the kidneys to fail.
5. Experiment: Click Reset. Check that the Solute outside is 10 and the Initial cell volume is 40%. To calculate the solvent concentration, divide the number of solvent particles by the total number of particles, and then multiply by 100. (Note: The Gizmo only displays the solute concentrations.)
Secondly, osmosis was to be observed to gain a proper understanding of how the principal of dialysis functions.
Kidneys must process tremendous amounts of blood, which may be up to 4 liters of blood per kilogram every minute in humans. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron, comprised of the renal tubule and associated vasculature. Major kidney structures are described below.
There are two kidneys, each about the size of a fist, located on either side of the spine at the lowest level of the rib cage. Each kidney contains up to a million functioning units called nephrons. A nephron consists of a filtering unit of tiny blood vessels called a glomerulus attached to a tubule. When blood enters the glomerulus, it is filtered and the remaining fluid then passes along the tubule. In the tubule, chemicals and water are either added to or removed from this filtered fluid according to the body's needs, the final product being the urine we excrete.
The reasoning behind this experiment is the examine whether the rate of osmosis is changed due to a change in temperature. It was hypothesized that the rate of osmosis will increase as the temperature of the sucrose is increased. The rate of osmosis was tested by using the different jars full of different temperate water and testing how high the water rose on an osmometer over a span of 20 minutes. An osmometer is a tool used to measure rates of osmosis. The different temperatures tested on a sucrose solution were 5 degrees Celsius, 20 degrees Celsius, and 37 degrees Celsius. Rates of osmosis were higher in the hot water than in the cold water and control. The results showed that the rate of osmosis increased as the temperature increased, henceforth the hypothesis was supported. In conclusion, the experiment showed how changes in temperature affect the rate of osmosis.
The concentration of solutes in the bodily fluids of most marine invertebrates is roughly isosmotic to their environment (Raven, 2008). Because there is no osmotic gradient there is no tendency for the net diffusion of water away from the animal’s cells to occur. When a change in salinity occurs some organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal homeostasis despite these external changes and are known as osmoregulators (Oxford, 2008). Other animals lack this ability and as such are called osmoconformers; their internal osmolarity matches that of their