1. High pressure for local adaptation combined with low pressure for lower costs would suggest what type of international strategy: A. global B. multidomestic C. transnational D. overall cost leadership 2. Foreign direct investment includes the following form of entry strategy: A. licensing B. franchising C. joint ventures D. exporting 3. According to Michael Porter, ﬁrms that have experienced intense domestic competition are A. unlikely to have the time or resources to compete abroad. B. most likely to design strategies aimed primarily at the domestic market. C. more likely to design strategies and structures that allow them to successfully compete abroad. D. more likely to demand protection from their governments.
produce products and sold to multi country. The primary purpose of business internationalise is seek a wider range of competitive advantages and integrate resource in order to profits maximization. The Internationalization motives include three
Once a firm determines its corporate level strategy, it must decide on its business level strategy. An international firm must decide on only what business level strategy it wants in one market but also whether it wants to have the same business level strategy for each country in which it competes or whether to give its managers in other countries the responsibility for creating their own business strategies.
For many firms, seeking for new countries’ markets is the mainly attempt to spread their products or services into the foreign markets, and the firms will retain and construct their participation in present markets to increase their worldwide competitive force (Doole and Lowe, 2012, 218; Hollensen, 2007, 5).About market , there is no perfect market entry plan and different market entry methods might be adopted by different firms entering the same market and/or by the same firm in different markets (Bukley, 1985).
However, while the OLI paradigm centers around a single expansion decision, the Uppsala model views internationalisation as a gradual process with an incremental increase of knowledge of the target region and subsequent commitments in that region. Hence, internationalisation occurs faster in the OLI paradigm. Another difference between the two models is their respective focuses. The OLI paradigm focuses more inward, on the attributes of the expanding company, comprising ownership, location, and internalisation advantages and argues that companies need to combine these to minimise risk and succeed with FDI. On the other hand, the Uppsala model concentrates on the actual process of internationalisation, stating that companies should begin with low risk commitments - such as exports - to acquire knowledge of the target country and then increase their commitment based on the gathered knowledge. With higher commitment, more knowledge can be gained to be used for further commitment (Peng & Meyer
There are internal and external factors that drive companies to approach the global market in a different way as compared to earlier description of traditional stage model. The external factors include globalization, digitalization, outsourcing, virtual economy and development in communication standards while the internal factors include operations, language, culture, local adaptation (Oviatt & McDougall, 1994).
The Eclectic paradigm is also known as the OLI model .The OLI stands for ownership, Location and internationalization , 3 potential sources of advantages that may be the cause of a firm’s decision to become a multinational. The focus of the Eclectic paradigm from its birth till now has been the O (why) ,L (where) and I (how).
According to Charles W. L. Hill (2016), “International business refers to, any firm that is involved in international trade or investment. With that being said, all a company has to do to be classified as a globally recognised company is export and import products to/or from other countries. Companies decide to go global and enter international markets for various reasons, and these different objectives at the time of entry should produce different strategies, performance goals, and even forms of market participation.
International marketing is practiced in all major corporations, there are a large array of advantages companies can benefit from this and very little to lose. By marketing themselves globally, corporations essentially create multiple business opportunities for themselves worldwide when they recognise the opportunities and strive to inform or meet different consumer needs. Several corporations tend to internationalize when the domestic market is not generating lucrative profits for the corporation compared to the domestic market. For example, in 1994, Apple generated an additional amount of $80 million from the foreign market compared to the local market.
For firms seeking growth, overseas markets represent new market segments, which they may be able to serve with their existing range of products. In this way, a company can stick to producing products that it is good at. Finding new overseas
The goals of business are to increase or stabilize profits. Success is influenced by foreign sales and foreign resources. International business includes all business transactions that involve two or more countries. In order to pursue any of its international objectives, a company must establish international operational forms, some of which may be significantly different from those used domestically. The choice of forms is influenced not only by the objective being pursued, but also by the environments in which the firm must operate. These environmental conditions also
International market entry is important because it enables an organization to increase its output and attract new customers. By expanding the customer base and the scale of production, the business will be able to achieve economies of scale. That is, the organization can be able to reduce the average cost per unit of production when the level of output is substantially increased (Stephan and Roin 28). After international expansion, cost advantages and higher profit be obtained through bulk purchasing, enjoying high turnover rate and paying lower interest rates on loans.
Global companies like P&G, J&J, IBM, GE, Pfizer, Cisco, Tata & Sons, Mahindra & Mahindra, Haier, Lenovo, HSBC among others, have all adopted M&A strategy. Some authors say that organizations rely on three mechanisms to achieve growth: organic growth, alliances, and mergers and acquisitions (Rosinski, 2011). Other authors have proposed five ways of international expansion, in increasing order of cultural risk: (1) the greenfield start, (2) the international strategic alliance, (3) the joint venture with a foreign partner, (4) the foreign acquisition, and (5) the cross-national merger (Hofstede et al., 2010).