Clostridium Difficile, or C. diff, is a common occurrence in hospitals. But how does one know that they are in fact dealing with a patient with C. diff and not just diarrhea? It all lies in the symptoms. C. diff diarrhea has a distinct odor. The patient also feels a constant urgency, a need to always go to the restroom. The stool contains mucous. Beyond that, most patients will present with a low grade fever, mild leukocytosis, hyperactive bowel sounds, and mild abdominal tenderness. (Headly, 461)
Clostridium difficile infection is a suprainfection cause by prolong use of antibiotics. Board spectrum antibiotic such as Penicillins, clindamycin, and cephalosporins are the antimicrobial drugs most commonly associated with C difficile colitis. According to Owens, in his research, C. difficile is primarily acquired in hospitals. Spread by spores, it can colonize a patient’s gut after helpful gut bacteria are killed by antibiotics. Its toxins can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, and it can be fatal (Owens 2013). On the other hand Kim in his research agreed clostridium difficile infection has been considered a hospital-acquired infection. However, a recent population-based study found 41% of CDIs were actually community acquired. It is becoming apparent that community acquired CDI affects populations previously thought to be at low risk; younger patients and patients who had no exposure to antibiotics in the 12 weeks before the infection. Thus, it is necessary to advocate and teach patient about
Many Americans die each year from complications connected to Clostridium difficile. It can ill a significant number of individuals as well as animals. The Clostridium difficile infection is the result of poor hygiene, misuse, overuse of antibiotics and an aging population. In this paper I will be discussing the following topics, what clostridium difficile means, what it causes, signs and symptoms, complications, treatment and the prevention.
Clostridium difficile, also known as C. diff, is a bacterium that causes severe symptoms, including inflammation of the colon, which can be life threatening (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). It is a very common infection that affects hundreds of thousands in the United States alone. If not caught and treated early, it can be deadly. I kills thousands of people in the United States every year (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2017). It is extremely important to learn the signs and symptoms of this infection so treatment can begin as early as possible.
These single celled tube-like organism finds a home in the gut of every human during their lifetime. If the person affected does not have the proper bacterial flora to balance Clostridium difficle, the bacteria will manifest itself. The bacteria produces a toxin that breaks down the outer and inner linings of the small and large intestine causing the condition, Clostridium difficle Colitis. The impaired intestine will cause the body to have up to 20 bowel movements a day. The bowel matter will eventually turn to water and blood, causing extreme malnourishment and dehydration. The bacterial infection, if not intervened will cause morbidity. According to Roos (2015), the CDC reported there are half- million cases and thirty-thousand deaths each year in the United States. Clostridium difficle is one of the world’s leading causes of deaths in assisted living facilities (Roos,
Ingestion of the endospore causes infection. Once it reaches the preferred anaerobic environment of the gut, the endospores germinate and begin releasing toxins A and B (Burns & Minton 2011). The presence of C. difficile does not necessarily mean infection. A patient can be positive for C. difficile but have normal stool, which means there is colonization without infection. Patients who have the C. difficile pathogen without experiencing any symptoms allow it to be passed along undetected which contributes to the ongoing spread to others. Only when toxin A and toxin B are released at suitable levels does C. difficile become pathogenic to humans. Once infected, typical symptoms include watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, colitis, fever, and fecal leukocytes. Moderate to severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) consist of profuse diarrhea, abdominal distention, leukocytosis, systemic inflammatory response, pseudomembranous colitis, megacolon and death (Sunenshine & McDonald, 2006). With the combination of a highly resilient endospores, and asymptomatic carriers, this allows C. difficile to persist in the environment and spread to patients with compromised immune systems, or older patients who have a high risk of contracting CDI with a higher severity than healthy adults (Laffan, Bellantoni, Greenough, Zenilman, 2006).
C-Diff is an anaerobic gram-positive spore forming bacterium, which affects and grows in the gastrointestinal tract after the normal intestinal flora, has been changed by antibiotic therapy or by contact through the fecal- oral route (Kelly & Lamont, 2014). The C-Diff organism, releases two different toxins, toxins A & B. Both toxins are cytotoxic for many different cells. Toxin B is more potent then A, both toxins cause increased vascular permeability by opening tight junctions between cells, which cause hemorrhage, these toxins also stimulate the
Clostridium difficile is a gram positive, spore forming anaerobic bacillus, which may or may not carry the genes for toxin A-B production (Nipa, 2010). These two types of protein exotoxins produced by the Clostridium difficile bacillus, toxin A and toxin B, can have an infectious form and a non-active, non-infectious form (Grossman, 2010). The infectious form can survive for a short duration of time in the environment. The spores can survive for a longer period of time in the environment and are not infectious unless and until they are ingested or are transformed into an infectious state (Nipa, 2010).
C-Diff is an opportunistic infection, it will affect an individual whose flora in the intestines has been compromised by the treatment of antibiotics for a different infection like pneumonia, MRSA, etc... Antibiotics do not know what bacterial are good and what is bad. They kill all bacteria. This gives the C-Diff spores the opportunity to then take over the flora in the intestine that are being killed by the current regiment of antibiotics. C-Diff affects the flora of the large intestine
Clostridium difficile is a highly contagious infection of the colon that's hard to contain and occurs in many health care facilities. With the proper interventions, it can be prevented and contained. The purpose of this paper is to discuss an article about C. diff and give suggestions on how to avoid an outbreak at a health care facility.
S aureus was originally thought to be the major causative agent of PMC and CDI due to their strong correlation. However, a clostridial toxin was later found to be the source (6). In the late 1970s, Bartlett et al suggested that C. difficile toxin was actually the cause of PMC (7). Subsequently, multiple investigators were also able to isolate C. difficile toxin from the feces of patients infected with PMC, and it was proved to be the causative agent
Most of the public have heard of broad-spectrum drugs, especially in terms of antibiotic resistance, because they fight a wide range of bacteria but also kills normal flora in the gut (Haddox, 2013). The loss of this gut flora can lead to an abnormal growth of harmful bacteria such as clostridium difficile (C-Diff). The four “C” antibiotics that have a high risk for patient to develop C-diff are clindamycin, cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, and ciprofloxacin (Haddox, 2013). These antibiotics have the highest risk of leading to C-diff development, however all antibiotics increase a patient’s likelihood of a C-diff infection. This effect can last up to 12 weeks post antibiotic administration (Haddox, 2013).
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacillus that is renowned for being the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in adult patients. C. difficile is present as normal intestinal flora within 3% to 5% of healthy people2, while its spores are ubiquitous in the environment, especially in hospital settings. It grows at an optimal temperature and pH of 37ºC and 6.5–7.5 respectively.1 It is an obligate anaerobic as it thrives in the absence of oxygen. It is highly motile with the presence of peritrichous flagella, which are evenly spread out along its surface. As briefly mentioned above, this evolving pathogen produces endospores. The bacterium produces dormant spores, which are extremely hardy and resistant to antibiotics, the host’s innate immune system, and once shed into the environment through the host’s feces, they are resistant to unfavorable aerobic conditions3 as well as several types of bleach-free disinfectants, which are commonly used in hospitals.3 The spores will germinate under the favorable conditions of the intestinal tract, resulting in the multiplication of vegetative cells, colonizing in the gastrointestinal tract. The vegetative cells release two powerful exotoxins upon adherence to the epithelial cells of the GI tract. Pathogenic strains of C. difficile produce two exotoxins: toxin A and toxin B. Toxin A is an enterotoxin that causes fluid excretion, resulting in fluid accumulation and watery diarrhea. Toxin B is a potent
Clostridium difficile is an obligate anaerobe, gram positive bacteria that has the ability to form spores. Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic associated diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile is an opportunist pathogen that utilizes many factors to infect and damage the host, often with overwhelming consequences. Symptoms range in severity from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon, the most severe form of disease, which often results in death (Awad, 2014).
Clostridium difficile has infected up to 500,000 people in the United States every year. Clostridium difficile is a bacterial infection it can cause diarrhea and also a fever. It has also caused death among people. There has been a recorded 14,000 deaths from Clostridium difficile a year.