The Notre Dame Cathedral is certainly one of the most beautiful locations in the world, as the city of Paris as a whole and the building's surroundings contribute to making visitors acknowledge the importance of this monument. Construction on the cathedral started in 1163 and was largely finished by 1250, with most of its features emphasizing Gothic influences. The building's architecture, the sculptures present in it, and the impressive stained glass all stand as reminders that the French community invested most of its cultural values into the church at the time when it was constructed.
Towards the end of the Middle Ages and into the duration of the Renaissance, the Medieval Church’s social and political power dwindled. Centuries prior the Catholic Church gained a surplus of control, largely due to the stability it maintained during the chaotic breakdown of the Western Roman Empire . Yet toward the end of the Middle Ages the Church set in motion factors that would ultimately lead to its downfall as the definitive figure of authority. However, despite political and social controversy surrounding the church, the institutions it established cleared a path for a new way of thinking, shaping society in an enduring way.
In the 12th century Goodrich Castle, was replaced with stone. This decreased the level of destruction during wars. As a development of Stone Keep castles, concentric castles were built from 1250 onwards. The concentric design was copied from the castles in the Middle East; knowledge and understanding of design and structure came into England through returning crusaders (soldiers) during the 1200’s.
“Gothic cathedrals were usually the tallest and largest buildings in the city. (Document G: Gothic Cathedrals)” This piece of text tells me that the Cathedrals during that time were like the Empire State Building of New York City. The Empire State Building is one of the most popular skyscrapers of our time. This shows why the Notre Dame showed cultural advancement in Europe.
Near the end of the 11th century, we see the style of Romanesque architecture transfigure into what is known as the Gothic era, introduced by Abbot Suger during his rebuilding of the Abbey of St. Denis. Looking at the basilica of St. Sernin de Toulouse (1080-1120), named after the bishop who was apprehended by the former Pagan priest when Christianity was illegal, we can see the basilica is itself in shape of the cross. There are also five aisles, to suggest the five wounds of Christ, five entryways (Soltes, 12, 3:25). The most notable difference between a Romanesque church and a Gothic one can be seen in the arches. Gothic arches, ogives they’re named, are pointed instead of rounded, giving a new criss-cross pattern, as exampled in the Chartres Cathedral (12th century) (Soltes, 12, 10:40). New patterns can also be found in the buttressing, where instead of holding the framework directly through the walls, the Gothic structure works from the roof and down as if flying away, coining the term the flying buttresses (Soltes, 12, 11:15). This sort of buttressing is competent for
Some of those main characteristics of the Gothic Architecture are the pointed arcs, ribbed vaults and flying buttress, stained glass windows, complex decoration, towers and some other details. The origins of the pointed arcs used in gothic Architecture come from the pre-Islamic and Islamic Architecture. Two-barrel vaults intersecting in a perpendicular way compose the ribbed vaults; this would give more strength to the building allowing for more windows at higher places. Flying buttress has to purpose to resist horizontal forces, by redirecting to force to the ground. The stained glass windows were ecclesiastic windows that allow light from the highest points of the building. Some of the complex decoration refers to the amount of detail such as statues, paints, and scripts on the walls.
Corresponding to how the Salisbury Cathedral is the epitome of English Gothic Architecture, the Amiens Cathedral is the essence of French Gothic Architecture, the difference however is that with the Amiens Cathedral it is rather uniform in its appearance compared to the contrast of conflicting architectural styles of the Salisbury Cathedral. Amiens Cathedral serves as a testament to the beauty and grace of the French Gothic movement in the 13th century. This stunning cathedral stands in the once thriving and bustling town of Amiens, France, located roughly 140 kilometers north of Paris. The Amiens Cathedral was commissioned by Bishop Evrard de Fouilloy to replace a smaller church dedicated to St. Mary and St. Firmin that had burned down in 1218. The destruction that the fire had wreaked over the city was so disastrous that nothing remained from any of the former churches. Construction of the nave began in 1220 and finished in 1288, a period of sixty eight years. The master of the work was named Robert de Luzarches. Master Thomas de Cormont came after him and eventually his son, Regnault, succeeded him. There were several additions made at the times, and repairs and restorations have been carried out from time to time; but Amiens and its main features stands accurately to that of a thirteenth-century French cathedral. In 1258, another fire broke out that threatened to undo the work that the architectures spent so many years working on. Luckily the building survived, but not
This remarkable improvement in methods indicates the fresh importation of skills from the East and this applies not merely to England but to all Western Europe at that time (“The Flowering” 88). Into three main phases the development of architecture through the period may be divided. The elements of Gothic style and their gradual elaboration over a period of rather more than a century came first at the opening of the 12th century. After the year 1000 there was a fully coordinated Gothic art particularly marked by the invention of windows with baltracy, Jean d’ Orbais probably used it first at Rheims cathedral during the generation following 1211, why the east end was begun. A century followed with classic poise in which an international architecture reached its peak and produce perfect forms of castle and palace, cathedrals enriched with painting patterned tiles, figure sculpture and stained glass (“The Flowering” 92).
The Gothic style, dating between the 12th century and 16th century, began in France and eventually spread throughout the rest of Europe. An example of the first true Gothic church was St. Denis of Paris. Now, it is considered one of our finest artistic periods, but at the time, the term “gothic” did not exactly hold the same meaning it does today. The name came from the Goths and was used rather negatively when describing this style of architecture as they considered it to be similar to the works of the barbarians from which the name was derived.
I also thought it was interesting to learn that the abbey church of Saint Dennis was the first introduction of Gothic architecture. Another interesting thing that I wanted to point out was, that many of the churches, including the abbey church of Saint Dennis and the Chartres Cathedral, "had lengthy construction histories" (Kleiner 379). But, one church, in particular, had a fairly quick construction time frame. The Laon Cathedral, pictured below, is an example of a church that began construction around 1160 and the construction was quickly completed, by 1200. Besides, Gothic architectural features, the Laon Cathedral also demonstrates some Romanesque features, including, "nave bays with large sexpartite rib vaults" (Kleiner 379). The textbook
The research paper, shall be concerned with discussion Gothic architecture in Europe-namely England, France, Germany, and Italy starting from 12th to the 16th Centuries. Architecture was the most original and lasting form of art during the Gothic Period, which lasted for four centuries starting from the mid 12th century. The impetus for this architecture was the Roman Catholic Church, which sought to portray their houses of worship as something which transcended the realm of mankind. It is interesting to note that many of the Northern European areas were predominately pagan, and only recently brought into the Church. The imagery provided by Gothic structural design was something these peoples could more readily understand, as they
The Notre Dame Cathedral is the most visited tourist site in France, beating the Eiffel tower with 13 million visitors each year. Because it took over 300 years to build, there are many different styles of the architecture shown throughout the building(notredamecathedralparis.com). This structure shows the hardships of war and the enlightened thinking of the Renaissance. Built in 12th century France, the Notre Dame Cathedral is one of the biggest French Catholic cathedrals in France and is still functional as a regular Church(sacred-destinations.com). This gem of architecture is a true wonder and represents the sacred and hopeful times of the middle ages and the renaissance.
All over the world, people still come to admire the beauty of European cathedrals. Many of the cathedrals are fragile due to age, neglect, pollution, and insufficient funds available to restore these historical and magnificent buildings. Nevertheless, visitors to these architectural masterpieces are fascinated by the design and structure of these churches. The cathedral builders using their own ingenuity, expertise, and limited resources were able to defy the laws of gravity and time. (Icher 30)
Reims Cathedral was built within the Marne department of the Champagne-Ardenne region between the years 1212-1300. However, Reims genesis dates back to 496 AD as a previous cathedral once occupied the land on which the new cathedral was built upon. A fire destroyed the original cathedral structure on May 6th, 1210. 2 years after the fire, it was decided to initiate work on the construction of the new, cathedral that exists to this present day. This second cathedral is in the French gothic style and was designed to be much more capacious in contrast to its fire- destroyed predecessor. ”The nave and aisles of the western arm are broadened out in the eastern arm.” This logic permitted larger crowds to attend coronation ceremonies. The cathedrals predominant function is a place of worship under the denomination of Roman Catholics. An assembly of architects participated in the design over a period of 7 centuries due to adaptations and refinements materialised to its design. Such names consist of Jean d 'Orbais (1175-1231); responsible for the first initial design work of the cathedral, Henri Deneux (1874-1969); who laboured over the architectural restoration of Reims after bombing raids in WW1, Bernard de Soissons (birth date and death date unknown) noted as a participant with Jean in the initial design work of the cathedral. One fundamental aspect explored by studying Reims Cathedral is the quality of natural light and how it is affected by its both artistic and