Why do Meerkats have Different Alarm Calls?

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It is known that in some species alarm calls play an important role in intra-specific communication and vigilance behaviour. They are encoded in two different ways (Zuberbühler et al., 1999). The referential alarm call contains information about external events while the affective alarm call provides information about the caller's motivation (Manser, 2001). Two well-researched non-human primates using predator specific alarm calls are ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and also the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) (Evans et al., 1993). Other species such as some ground squirrels, use alarm calls that contain information about the urgency of the situation rather than the predator type (Manser et al., 2001).
Studies show that meerkats
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Meerkats have three main alarm call types to which they respond in different ways (Manser, 2001). They are distinguished between terrestrial (mainly jackals), aerial (mainly eagles) and recruitment calls (snakes and deposits of predators). Meerkats are also known to use different acoustic variations depending on the urgency (high, medium and low) (Hollén and Manser, 2007).
The function of alarm calls in general has been studied for many decades and raises the question what leads animals to perform the selfless act of warning others while also attracting the predator’s attention. This self-sacrificing behaviour appears to be altruistic (Sherman, 1977). However, altruism commonly evolves through kin selection (Charnov and Krebs, 1975) while alarm calls can be seen between all members of a species, closely related or not. This might be because sooner or later the individual performing the altruistic act benefits from it (Trivers, 1971). It is likely that the receiver of the altruistic act will repay the performer by behaving altruistic in the future and therefore both benefit in the long run (Trivers, 1971). Receivers that decide against behaving altruistic in return might be punished by not receiving any more altruistic acts, which is why natural selection favours altruism (Trivers, 1971).
One might think that alarm calls are also useful to distract or even discourage predators from hunting a group that already has been warned about said

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