Why transformation efforts fail

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Leaders who successfully transform businesses do eight things right (and they do them in the right order).

Leading Change
Why Transformation Efforts Fail by John P Kotter
.


Included with this full-text Harvard Business Review article:
1 Article Summary
The Idea in Brief—the core idea
The Idea in Practice—putting the idea to work
2 Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail
10 Further Reading
A list of related materials, with annotations to guide further exploration of the article’s ideas and applications

Reprint R0701J

BEST OF HBR

Leading Change
Why Transformation Efforts Fail

The Idea in Brief

The Idea in Practice

Most major change initiatives—whether
…show more content…
• Leaving short-term successes up to chance • Failing to score successes early enough
(12-24 months into the change effort)

• Not creating new social norms and shared values consistent with changes
• Promoting people into leadership positions who don’t personify the new approach page 1

Leaders who successfully transform businesses do eight things right
(and they do them in the right order).

BEST OF HBR

Leading Change
Why Transformation Efforts Fail by John P Kotter
.

COPYRIGHT © 2006 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Editor’s Note: Guiding change may be the ultimate test of a leader—no business survives over the long term if it can’t reinvent itself. But, human nature being what it is, fundamental change is often resisted mightily by the people it most affects: those in the trenches of the business. Thus, leading change is both absolutely essential and incredibly difficult.
Perhaps nobody understands the anatomy of organizational change better than retired
Harvard Business School professor John P.
Kotter. This article, originally published in the spring of 1995, previewed Kotter’s 1996 book
Leading Change . It outlines eight critical success factors—from establishing a sense of extraordinary urgency, to creating short-term wins, to changing the culture (“the way we do things around here”). It will feel familiar when you read it, in part because Kotter’s
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