Across many cultures that function predominately with patriarchal thought, women are perceived to be closer to nature than men (Roach, 2003; King, 1989, 2003). This perception of women and nature portrays them as the ‘others’ – something that is different from and controlled by the dominant (King, 2003). The binary oppositions of male over female and culture over nature have been associated with more male-dominating religions like Christianity (Roach, 2003; Ruether, 2003) Goddess religions and earth based spiritualties on the other hand find power in the female image, connect with nature through rituals, and believe it is the destiny of humanity to participate in the cycles of birth, death, and renewal that characterizes life on earth. The…show more content… The Divine is seen as the ultimate One, but there is a duality present. Vivianne Crowley (2003) elaborates on this concept by explaining that the Divine is seen as male and female, Goddess and God, representing a moving and transforming energy. Some traditions within Wicca may place a different emphasis on the Goddess and God, but all Wiccan traditions believe that the image of the Divine must comprise both male and female. To worship only a single God or Goddess would produce an imbalance. Such discrepancies that are prevented in the Wiccan beliefs are found in the patriarchal structure of a religion such as Christianity (Ruether, 2003). Many female and male feminists left Christianity during the time of the feminist movement to find practices like Wicca so that they had the opportunity to reach their greatest potential in life (Crowley, 2003).
Wiccan fundamentals differ from Christianity not only in the sense of gender, but also in the idea that the earth is a living entity and should be treated equal to those who are in relation to it (Fry, 2000). As a religion, Wicca offers an understanding of humanities relationship with the plants and animals of our home planet, and a form of worship that individuals can share with each other. Wiccans see the representation of the earth as the Great Mother and the teachings of this religion focus on valuing the sacred soil. It is believed that this earth was given for us to inhabit by the grace of the Gods and