Williams Syndrome As A Neurodevelopmental Disorder Essay

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Introduction Williams Syndrome(WS) is considered as a neurodevelopmental disorder, caused by a contiguous gene deletion of about 26 genes from the long arm of chromosome 7(Peoples et al., 2000). Since it had been first aware by J.C.P. Williams in 1961(Lenhoff, Wang, Greenberg & Bellugi, 1997), Williams Syndrome has drawn more attention in last 40 years. the incidence rate is approximately 1 in 2000 and diagnosed generally at 6.4 years old (Morris, Demsey, Leonard, Dilts & Blackburn, 1988). People with WS usually show a developmental delay at the early age and are affected all life long. Williams Syndrome is characterised by some abnormalities in physical, behavioural, and cognitive. Individuals with WS will suffer various cardia, vascular and gastrointestinal problems (Wessel et al. 1994, Hallidie-Smith et al., 1998,). They also have some distinctive facial features, including a small upturned nose, long philtrum, wide mouth, full lips, small chin, and puffiness around the eyes (Morris & Mervis, 2000). In infancy, hypercalcaemia as another common feature of WS can cause the symptoms of vomiting, irritability (Black & Carter, 1963), moreover, children with WS usually have the difficulties of feeding and toilet training. In terms of behavioural features, Williams Syndrome is associated with development delay in motor skills and atypical behaviour when they are compared with the topical development children (Sparaci, Stefanini, Marotta, Vicari & Rizzolatti, 2012), for example,
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