Judith Sargent Murray was a revolutionary woman- born into a socially prominent and wealthy family during the start of the American Revolution, Murray was recognized for her intellect at a young age and given an education along with her brother. Later in life, she had her written works widely published and read during a time when women’s voices were seen as fundamentally inferior to those of men. In one of her most influential and strongly opinionated works, ‘On the Equality of the Sexes’, Murray makes a strong case for the spiritual and intellectual equality of men and women, arguing that women and men are born equal, but that men are simply given more education and
Karen Horney is one of the preeminent figures and founders of modern psychoanalysis. Although her ideas are not widely taught today or accepted as a basis of psychoanalysis in and of themselves, her ideas of social and environmental influences are “integrated into modern psychoanalysis therapies and personality development theory” (Quinn). She was a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and was one of his early followers. Yet Horney joined the class of neo-Freudians after her research and writing led her to develop and establish psychoanalytical theories that ran counter to Freud's ideas. She objected to the Freudian psychology of women, which instigated the search for her own theories for the causes of neurosis. This in turn led to her
During the pre-revolutionary period, more and more men worked outside the home in workshops, factories or offices. Many women stayed at home and performed domestic labor. The emerging values of nineteenth-century America, which involves the eighteenth-century, increasingly placed great emphasis upon a man's ability to earn enough wages or salary to make his wife's labor unnecessary, but this devaluation of women's labor left women searching for a new understanding of themselves. Judith Sargent Murray, who was among America's earliest writers of female equality, education, and economic independence, strongly advocated equal opportunities for women. She wrote many essays in order to empower young women in the new republic to stand up against
Explain the reasons for the development of psychology as an academic discipline in the 19th and 20th centuries, making explicit the important turning points and breakthroughs.
Throughout the early days of psychology, opportunities for women where limited and it was an extremely difficult time for women to become apparent in the field of psychology. Women struggled for equality in the field of psychology and this began with our pioneers, Mary Whiton Calkins, who sat her PhD but was never awarded it, Margaret Washburn, being the first women to be awarded a PhD and Christine Ladd Franklin.
Margaret (Peggy) O’Neal (who preffered to be called Margaret) was born in 1799 in Washington DC. She was the daughter of William O’Neal, who owned a thriving boarding house and tavern called the Franklin House in that same town. It was frequented by senators, congressmen, and all politicians. She was the oldest of six children, growing up in the midst of our nation’s emerging political scene. She was always a favorite of the visitors to the Franklin House. She was sent to one of the best schools in Washington DC, where she studied English and French grammar, needlework and music. She also had quite a talent for dance, and was sent to private lessons, becoming a very good dancer. At the age of twelve, she danced for the First Lady Dolley
Margaret Floy Washburn was born on July 25, 1871 in New York City to parents Reverend Francis and Elizabeth Floy Washburn. She was born in a time when women were not allowed to display any type of power, higher reasoning, or desire for higher education. At the age of seven, she began her educational journey in the home of a retired Presbyterian minister who lived next door to her family. In 1886, she graduated from high school at the young age of 15 years old. Upon completion of high school, she attended Vassar College where she studied Chemistry and French. However, by the time she had graduated her educational interests had changed to philosophy and science, which
Margaret was exceptionally bright in school and her father pleaded with her to go back. Margaret refused. Margaret's two older sisters, Mary and Nan, offered to pay for the cost of a private school out of their paychecks if Margaret agreed to wait tables for her room and board. So, in 1896 Margaret ended up at Claverack, one of the first coeducational schools in the East. It was there that her natural leadership skills blossomed in the form popularity and pranks (Miller 199-203).
An inspiring woman once said, “Educate a boy, you educate a man, but educate a girl and you educate a family.” This woman was Adelaide Hunter Hoodless who was a Canadian educational reformer who believed that women had value as mothers and wives in their home. She fought for their right to education and didn't back down. Haunted by the death of her small son, she launched a twenty year campaign and gave women the knowledge and institutions that they needed to serve and safeguard their families.
After graduating high school, Chase did not continue her education, which was a common pattern for most women of the time, and went on to hold numerous jobs. At the age of 32, she married Clyde Harold Smith, who was later elected from Maine’s 2nd district to the House of Representatives for the 75th Congress (History, Art & Archives). He and Margaret were members of the Republican Party and worked together in his Washington office. In 1940, Representative Smith became gravely ill and convinced his wife to run for his position. Shortly before his death, he was recorded in urging Maine voters to vote for his “partner in public life” (Wallenstein 2008). Margaret Chase Smith followed his wishes and entered the race in the special election that would decide who served the deceased senator’s unexpired term. She won the election by a large number of votes, making her Maine’s first woman Congress
As a woman myself, it is hard to imagine a time when I would not have been allowed to attend college, let alone be writing this paper. As children most of us heard stories from our grandparent’s about what life was like they were young. I can remember laughing at the thought of “walking up hill both ways” to get to school. With the liberties American Women have today, it is easy to take for granted everything the women before us fought so hard for. It is easy to forget the treatment they suffered in their struggle to bring us to today. In this paper we will examine the lives, struggles, and small victories of women that have led us to
“The subject of the Education of Women of the higher classes is one which has undergone singular fluctuations in public opinions” (Cobbe 79). Women have overcome tremendous obstacles throughout their lifetime, why should higher education stand in their way? In Frances Power Cobbe’s essay “The Education of Women,” she describes how poor women, single women, and childless wives, deserve to share a part of the human happiness. Women are in grave need of further improvements in their given condition. Cobbe suggests that a way to progress these improvements manifests in higher education, and that this will help further steps in advance. Cobbe goes on to say that the happiest home, most grateful husband, and the most devoted children came from a woman, Mary Sommerville, who surpassed men in science, and is still studying the wonders of God’s creations. Cobbe has many examples within her paper that shows the progression of women as a good thing, and how women still fulfill their duties despite the fact that they are educated. The acceptance of women will be allowed at the University of New England because women should be able to embrace their abilities and further their education for the benefit of their household, their lives, and their country.
Margaret Floy Washburn, was the first female doctorate in the field of psychology and received this doctorate under the tutelage of Titchener. She wrote more than seventy articles on the psychology of animals. In addition, she was greatly influenced by the Gestalt psychology for the study of the consciousness. Washburn’s primary goal in studying animal behavior included the focus of inferring consciousness in animals at all phylogenetic levels. She had done hundreds of experiments on the consciousness of animals, that included space perception, learning ability, and the sensory discrimination. Morgan studied the same thing but Washburn also used controlled behavior to index mental events to create a catalogue of the events of the mind. In addition,
It feels as though most of the time when thinking about psychology and the great contributions that have been made to it, that most of them have been from men, but along the way there have been several influential women that have contributed to the field of psychology as well. Just like men, there were several women who were pioneers, theorists, and counselors; many of these women have contributed to the field of psychology in their own special between the years of 1850 and 1950. Of all these amazing women who are pioneers, theorists, and counselors, the one who stands out the most is Anna Freud. This paper will go on to explain Anna Freud’s
The History of Psychology In order to discuss Psychology's history, it is important to understand that psychology still does not have one unifying approach unlike the natural sciences; even the definition of Psychology and what it truly means is still undecided. However I shall attempt to review chronologically its philosophical origins, include how the science of Physics and Biology were placed in history and how they influenced research and determined the development of Psychology as its recognised today. Beginning with the philosophers Plato and Aristotle (between 428- 347) in ancient Greece, they began to ask