2. What do these duties reveal about the basis of local rule in post-carolingian society?
The medieval church taught that women were inferior to men and that they should be compliant and obedient to their fathers and husbands. Men look down to women as their respect for their ladies are limited as in Canterbury Tales were these women start out as beneath men. These same men who feel the need to arrogate women of their dignity find their fate is later put into the women’s hands. Although a women is taciturn and does not speak out to the men and talk of their animadversion toward the men’s behavior, these same ladies have the power to then decide how these men should serve their punishment for their sacrileges and unruly decisions as in the “Wife of Bath’s Tale”, were after his life was saved by an old lady, in return this old women requested to him to “take me as your wife” (p.138). A women’s love and passion should be approached with appreciation and admiration otherwise being inconsiderate and impassionate will turn a women against a man.
In early New England textile mills, women and child labor contributed a huge effort to the production of textiles (Foner, The “Mill” Girls 264.). Accepting women in the work place was a huge breakthrough in the progression of women’s rights. In The kingdom Of Matthias, Matthias reacted to how women are getting the rights to work as to give them tasks in the household limiting them still. Matthias believed women should only do what they are permitted to do by their husbands.
What was the predominant image of women and women’s place in medieval society? Actual historical events, such as the scandal and subsequent litigation revolving around Anna Buschler which Steven Ozment detail’s in the Burgermeisters Daughter, suggests something off a compromise between these two literary extremes. It is easy to say that life in the sixteenth century was surely no utopia for women but at least they had some rights.
The men throughout the Old English era played a very prevailing role in society. Men were the persons in society that were portrayed as the central leaders; being in charge of their homes and representing wisdom and strength. Because the men’s role in the Old English era was so dominant, there is a vast amount of literature about them, thus allowing women to be outshined. In fact, restrictions were placed on the majority of women during this period. However, as time evolved, the roles of women also evolved. In the Old English texts, The Wife’s Lament and Beowulf, the roles of women are seen as peace weavers, motivators, cupbearers and memory keepers, compared to the women in the Middle English text, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, who now play the roles of being protective, seductive and manipulative.
Comparing the culture of France and England during the sixteenth century reveals a commonality that the women were not considered worthy, whether as the heir to the throne or as those that might want to think theologically. (Davis, 77 and Lindberg, pg.
This investigation strives to compare and contrast of the role of women during the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages. The inquiry is significant because in order to understand the culture and ethics of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages it is crucial to understand the importance of women. The issues that will be addressed include: the role of women in the Roman Empire, the role of women in the Middle Ages, and the similarities as well as the differences of the two major time periods. This investigation will focus on the time period of 27 BC to 1485 BC and the places investigated will include Europe, more specifically Rome. This will be accomplished through a detailed examination of the role of women in the
Marie de France lived in a time when social graces were paramount to a good reputation, lordships and to securing good marriages. A woman was considered less valuable if she lost her virginity; a wife was subjected to her feudal lord, father, brother or son after her husband’s death. According to Angela Sandison’s article “The Role of Women in the Middle Ages”, this was because in the Middle Ages the Church and the aristocracy controlled public opinion and the legal system. These authorities of the times believed a woman’s place was in a submissive role to a man. In The Lay of the Nightingale, we will see how this social and religious hierarchy will impact the behaviors of the three people involved.
The article, Bound from Either Side’: The Limits of Power in Carolingian Marriage Disputes, To 840–870, written by Rachel Stone, provides readers with an insight on how the majority of marriages disputes in the 9th century were often “won” by the man because of the patriarchal basis of Carolingian society. Even when the men seemed to be in a fragile state, Stone found that even with a man having a restriction on his power within society and within the marriage, the masculinity of the men was not questioned and they continued to remain at the top of the gender order.
The idea of social status is one that assumes a pivotal role in Middle Age European culture. Social status was, in essence, a tool used by society to differentiate and label the population into their appropriate classes. Therefore, the elite would mingle with other members of their class, and the poor would associate themselves with other poor people. Social status had almost a sacred aura surrounding it. Obtainable only by rite of birth, it was not given out nor obtained overnight. Everyone respected the caste system and one’s position in it, and because of the respect for social status, the nobles received the respect of other noblemen, middle class merchants, peasants, and anyone
In the Elizabethan period, the law on what clothing people wore was so strict that people could have penalties such as fines, the loss of property, and even life (www.elizabethan-era.org.uk)! Clothing was very important to people in the Elizabethan period, and regardless of what social class people where in, what they wore mattered a lot to them and defined them. This applies to younger girls and younger boys, who spent a lot of time dressing nice. Young girls spent their morning putting on their many layers of clothing.
Regardless of class, there were several basic fashions that were popular among women during the Elizabethan era. Perhaps the most widely worn piece of clothing among Elizabethan women was the kirtle. Women at all levels of society wore the kirtle, a long fitted dress of simple design. However, while lower class women often wore kirtles alone, higher class women usually only wore them underneath more elaborate garments. Women of all classes also typically favored the combination of a bodice and numerous skirts called petticoats.
Throughout the letters, Abelard and Heloise’s perspectives on gender roles were strictly based upon the traditional views on sexuality. For instance, in the egotistical mind of Abelard, women in the medieval society were viewed as a weaker sex who need help of the a stronger male since there were certainly things that “cannot be carried out by women”5. Moreover, Heloise, despite her being a woman, did not seem to be shocked at the idea that men are superior to women. Instead, she instinctively acknowledged the weaker nature of women indicated by her discussion of her abbey which she called “feminine”; she also described it as weak, frail, and needing a more careful attention6. Throughout the first four letters from Abelard and Heloise, they both held congruent views regarding masculinity and femininity, and this dichotomous way of looking at gender indeed did not deviate much from the conventional thinking of the medieval society.
The purpose of the book Women of the Renaissance by Margaret King is to explain the various roles of that women occupied during the renaissance. She mainly focusses on women of western Europe between 1350 and 1650. In the chapter titled “Daughters of Eve: Women in the Family” King writes about the positions of women in the family. In the part of the chapter that we were assigned, she depicts the role of mother. She explains the importance having children, the differences between healthy and lower class mothers, and the relationship between these mothers and their children. During the renaissance, motherhood was an extremely important job, and many women were defined by it.
The people who lived during the Elizabethan Era were not allowed to wear whatever they like or desired. Their Fashion choices had to be followed by a strict law! The English people chose to establish social classes by the colors they wore and this had an affect on costumes used in theatre. Queen Elizabeth I followed the sumptuary laws, which was only certain classes were consent to wear specific fabric and colors. Therefore in plays the actors could only wear certain colors for their costumes that displayed what role and class their character was in. The clothes worn during this era was a result of Queen Elizabeth’s sumptuary laws, which had an affect on costumes used in plays, and each color a person wore had a significant meaning.