Woodland Periods in North America

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North America was a land of quite diversities from the east to the south. One of the early periods was the Eastern Woodland period (800-200 BCE) which led to the mound emergence and when the Middle Woodland period (c. 200 BCE- AD 400) started, the mounds became more significant for ritual and spiritual meaning widespread (Scarre 681: 2013). Adena and the Middle Woodland societies traded throughout the land such as the southern Appalachians and the Great Lakes. They would trade artifacts like marine shells, whelks, and pipestones (ibid 682). Most of the Middle Woodland artifacts were actually found in Ohio though it was evident that people would travel long-distances to different destinations. During the Late Woodland period (AD 400-1000), mounds were coming to an end in some areas as well as long-distance trades. Population didn’t cease to grow and stretched through the Midwest and Southwest. The villages that separated into owning more land where it was farther from river access started to cultivate native plants but they only lasted a few years (ibid 684). When the trading system of non-local materials started to die, weapons began to emerge such as arrowheads, bows and arrows for hunting. Tension between villages rose which then led to fighting and death which then also led to the formation of militarized groups by the end of the first millennium (ibid 686). Chiefdoms also became a part of life around AD 1000 mainly due to people seeking help from strong leaders in
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