World War One and The Middle East Essays

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Introduction Over the course of human history, wars have always created, destroyed or enveloped nations, states or empires. Examples of these include the Final War of the Roman Republic, which culminated with the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, to the Franco-Prussian War of 1871 which created a unified German state. However, World War One is known to have had the greatest impact on human civilization. It dragged in almost every continent into the conflict, halted global trade, led to the demolition of four empires, and gave nationalism everywhere a boost. One interesting factor about the First World War is the extent to which it had a tremendous impact on the Middle East. Many westerners today would only remember it by reading Erich Maria…show more content…
The link to the Middle East was bridged when the Ottoman Empire decided to join the Central Powers. Their reasoning behind this decision emanated from the fact that the Germans were seen as guaranteed victors since they were already the most industrialized state in Europe, had the experience of defeating France in 1871, and could move troops and equipment quickly where needed via their vast railway network. Another second factor was the proximity of Russia and the ambitions of the Austrians in the Balkans. Regarding the Allies, they assumed that the war would be quick and decisive just as the Central Powers assumed as well (Implementation of the Schlieffen Plan) and had no need for an alliance with the Ottomans but they did inhibit plans to distribute the Ottoman provinces when the war was over amongst themselves. However, they suffered a series of setbacks. By the fall of 1914, the British, French and Germans were all bogged down in trench warfare in Belgium and France. Furthermore in 1915, the Allies, in an attempt to alleviate the burden of fighting on the Western Front, decided to land troops in Gallipoli with the objective of knocking the Ottomans out from the war. The campaign ended in disaster. As a result of this failure, the British decided to establish contact with Sharif Husayn, caretaker of Mecca and of the Banu Hashim clan, with the promise of supporting him in the creation of an Arab
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