Most of ovarian cancer cases happen in patients that over 65 years, and the risk increases for post-menopausal patients compared to pre-menopausal patients. Another cause of ovarian cancer is the higher number of total lifetime ovulations. There are four main factors that influence the total ovulations. The first factor is never having been pregnant. The patient who has never been pregnant has higher risk of developing cancer than who has become pregnant. The risk probably will decrease if the patient has become pregnant several times. The second factor is never having taken the contraceptive pill. A study found that the patient who took the pill for 15 years will probably reduce the risk of cancer by 50%. The third factor is early start of menstruation (early menarche). The fourth factor is late start of menopause. Moreover, the patients who have been diagnosed with breast cancer have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. Additionally, obesity increases the risk of developing not only ovarian cancer but also many types of cancer. The risk increases by increasing of the weight. In addition, there are several studies have shown that obese cancer patients are more probable to have faster advancing cancer than cancer patients of normal
In Stage 0 there is an abnormal cell in the cervix which can become cancerous and can spread to other regions of the body.
Stage III: from when the tumor first appeared, has grown dramatically and continues to travel through the body.
Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological malignancy; although median age of diagnosis is 56 and older (post-menopausal) it can affect women of any child-birthing age. It is the 5th most common cancer diagnosed in the UK with 7,284 new cases in 2013 (Ovarian Cancer Statistics, 2013) Although the incidence is less than that of breast cancer, there is a greater number of deaths (4,271 deaths) associated with it. Almost three-quarters of the ovarian cancer are diagnosed at late stages after tumors have metastasized within the peritoneal cavity.
In stage one, cancerous cells are only found in one specific place. This could be "one or more lymph nodes in one lymph node group, Waldeyer's ring, thymus, or spleen" (National Cancer Institute, 2015). Stage one can be further broken down into stage IE, in which cancer is found outside of the lymph system. In stage two, cancerous cells are found in two or more groups of lymph nodes. Similar to stage one, stage two can also be further broken down into stage IIE. In this stage, the cancer is located in one or more lymph node groups and also outside of this group in another organ or surrounding area. Both stage one and two can be located either above or below the diaphragm. In stage three, which is more progressed, the cancer has spread to areas both below and above the diaphragm. This stage is also broken down into sub categories which are: stage III, stage IIIE, stage IIIs, and stage IIIE,S. Each of these are similar to stage three, but also include a specific organ such as the spleen or other nearby organs. Stage four is the last and most critical stage of Hodgkin's Disease. This stage includes all of the qualifications of the previous stages, in addition to being found in the lungs, liver, bone marrow, or even the cerebrospinal
Cancer- Cancer can occur in many parts of the female reproductive system. The uterus, ovaries, and cervix. This can occur in all ages. The treatments are certain medications, surgery, and chemotherapy.
I decided to do my paper on Ovarian Cancer because it is a disease that runs in my family history. My great aunt died of ovarian cancer when she was 73 years old. My two second cousins were diagnosed with ovarian cancer at age 42 and 58. They were diagnosed at the stages 2 and 4 and have survived. This paper will discuss what ovarian cancer is, how it is detected, who it affects and how it could be treated.
Ovarian cancer is cancer of the ovaries and is listed as the fifth cause of death in women. Ovaries are the reproductive glands of only females and the main source of a female’s estrogen and progesterone. The ovaries are made up of 3 kinds of cells, which can also develop different types of tumors. Epithelial tumors start from the cell that covers the outer surface of the ovaries. Germ cell tumors start from the cells that produce the eggs. Stromal tumors start from the structural tissues that hold the ovary together and produce the female hormones (1).
Cancer in the ovaries spreads quickly to other parts of the body and “is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, with an alarmingly poor prognosis attributed to late detection and chemoresistance (Brachova).” The ovaries are composed of three different types of tissue: epithelia, germ, and stromal, with tumors being named for the kinds of cells the tumor started from and whether the tumor is benign or cancerous. The American Cancer Society’s estimates for ovarian cancer in the United States in 2014 are about 21,980 new cases and about 14,270 deaths. A woman’s risk of getting invasive ovarian cancer in her lifetime is about 1 in 72 and about half of the women diagnosed with ovarian cancer are 63 years or older (American Cancer Society).
I am writing about Ovarian Cancer it is a terrible disease that can be extremely deadly. It is a disease in which your cells start to become abnormal and grow out of control and uncontrollably. Ninety percent of all ovarian cancer develops in the cells that line the ovaries and are called epithelial cell tumors.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a common gynecological cancer that has affected many women of all ages. This disease is the leading cause of cancer related death and has killed many every year. Ovarian cancer is a disease in which cancerous tumors begin to grow in your ovaries and pelvic region and then spread further to other major organs. Fertility drugs, health habits, obesity and genetics all contribute to the risk of developing ovarian cancer. A few ways to treat epithelial ovarian cancer involve surgery, chemotherapy, platinum-based drugs, and growth inhibitors.
They are known as Stage 0, Stage l, Stage ll, Stage lll and Stage lV. The TNM system is used to identify these different stages. The T (tumor), identifies the original tumor and its size. The N (Lymph Node), is used to show if the cancer has entered the lymph nodes or not. The M (Metastasis), indicates if the cancer can spread to other parts of the body. Stage 0 also called carcinoma in situ (CIS), in this where the cancer calls are still confined to the surface of the cervix. In stage l the cancer has grown deeper into the cervix. In Stage lA, the cancer can only be seen under a microscope and is less than 5mm deep and 7mm wide. Stage 1B measures more than 5mm and more than 7mm wide. In stage ll the cancer has grown past the cervix and is now in the uterus. Stage ll A, the cancer may have grown into the upper part of the vagina. In stage llB, the cancer has spread to nearby tissues, the parametria. In Stage lllA the cancer has spread to the lower part of the vagina. Stage lllB, the cancer has spread into the walls of the pelvis. In stage IVA the cancer has spread to the rectum or bladder. Finally Stage lVB, the cancer has spread to other organs in the body (Cancercenters.com,
Today a major public health concern amongst women is cancer. Breast cancer is the most common as it affects one in eight women in America, and is also socialized through media more than any other cancerous disease. Uterine cancer accounts for the majority of gynecologic cancer in women but another cancer is known as the “silent killer”. According to the American Cancer Society, ovarian cancer causes more cancer deaths in women than any other cancer of the reproductive system. Ovarian cancer kills two out of three women diagnosed in America and rates have not changed in 30 years (Burges). Although ovarian cancer show more symptoms than any other gynecological cancer, it continues to be a top cancer killer in women, which result from a lack
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death for women in the United States. In 2017, it's estimated that less than 40% of women who are affected by the disease will achieve a successful cure. Some women with the difficult-to-treat disease often have tumors that are not only at advanced stages but also able to resist current chemotherapy drugs.
Ovarian cancer is less common, with a projected 22, 440 new cases. However, it carries a much higher mortality rate.