The Enron and WorldCom scandals were arguably the incidents that permanently changed the procedures for accounting controls. In response to these incidents, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002 was passed. Once the knowledge of these scandals was made public, a number of subsequent accounting scandals were discovered in public companies such as Tyco International, HealthSouth, and American Insurance Group. In addition, a then-employee-owned company, Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan, Inc. (dba PBS&J, now known as “Atkins North America, Inc.”), was also hit by a similar accounting scandal. Henceforth, a case study of PBS&J is presented where we will examine the fraudulent transactions that
Phar-Mor Inc. fell prey to greed from the top. Unfortunately, the auditing firm assisted the organization with the conspiracy to defraud the users of financial reporting, the government, and the stakeholders. The chief officers used the funds for personal usage and appropriated funds to functions that were not related to the organization business. The financial statements were riddled with material misstatements and fraud acts of theft were blatant. For example, the senior financial officers including the CEO grossly over stated inventory to hide losses.
A number of financial statement frauds went undetected from auditors in past and attracted a high profile attention. The businessmen add fake assets or transfer the assets of companies to their personal assets and result in accounting scandals when the affected companies are bankrupted or are even close of bankruptcy. Just to mention a few names, accounting scandals of Enron, AOL Time Warner and Xerox are among the hottest accounting scandals of the century. This means that despite presence of professional auditors accounting scandals happen and there is a need to learn from the mistakes of the auditors who overlooked these activities. In this report the case study of Xerox is analyzed in detail to highlight violations of accounting principles and present an example from which lessons can be learnt for the future.
Throughout history and in our own time, legitimate accounting methods have been utilized to fraudulently engage in manipulating activities that results in illicit gains to the perpetrators and losses to individuals and financial institutions.
Fraudulent financial reporting is one form of corporate corruption and may involve the manipulation of the documents used to record accounting transactions, the misrepresentation of accounting events or transactions, or the intentional misapplication of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) (Crumbley, Heitger, and Smith, 2013). Examples of fraudulent schemes befitting of this category abound and usually involve financial statement items that have been misclassified, omitted, overstated, undervalued, or prematurely recognized. One case involving CEO Bill Smith of Moonstay
Within XYZ Company in the past year, three fraud incidents have occurred that have resulted in a cumulative loss of $5.9 million with additional losses yet to be determined. The fraud occurred with inventory, purchasing and receivables. The Board of Directors has directed management to outline a comprehensive plan to prevent future fraud. Preventing fraud is the responsibility of top management, middle management, the internal audit team, corporate security, the audit committee, and the legal counsel.
The Business Record Certification Statement (Exhibit C-10) was provided to show that the EBT transactions the OIG used to create their analysis were complete and unaltered as shown in the Xerox database. The ALJ finds that these documents show how the OIG determined an average
executives were accused of overstating revenue from software licenses in collusion with executives from PurchasePro Inc.AOL sold the software licenses for PurchasePro. The parties were accused of deceptive accounting practices that resulted in investors believing that the sales projections of PurchasePro had been met when they had not and the result was that the stock prices of PurchasePro were inflated and overstated by 37% in the first quarter of 2001. Out of court settlements were reached by AOL and executives including a $210 million fine in order to avoid being criminally and civilly prosecuted. The defendants in this case who did not accept plea agreements were found to be 'not guilty' and this is stated to be due to the lack of documentation of what had occurred on AOL's networking and computer systems.
After completing both vertical and ratio analyses, there is potential evidence to substantiate the need for a fraud hypothesis. Out of the five financial relationships that could lead to fraud, the relationship in question for WorldCom’s financial statements is Assets versus Liabilities. It is customary that companies maintain a balance between what they own and what they owe. However, a shift in the balance in either direction could result from a change in company policy or fraud. Overall, WorldCom’s Debt to Assets’ ratio is relatively stable with a slight increase of 1.69% from 2000’s 40.55% to 2001’s 42.24%. However, the decrease in the Current Liabilities account from $17,673,000,000 in 2000 to $9,210,000,000 in 2001 results in a 52% drop in Total Current Liabilities. The source of the significant drop is the $7,028,000,000 decrease in Short-Term Debt and Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt. There is a possibility that WorldCom paid off these debts, but there is also the possibility that WorldCom wrote them off. Current Ratio, Acid Test, and Net Working
Xerox hopes to avoid mistakes of the past by having “a system to prevent technology from leaking out of the company”, according to Robert V. Adams, president of XTV. They have a $30 million dollar fund to support this intrapreneurial activity. It has supported a dozen start-ups thus far, only two having failed. These are extremely promising numbers, with 83% of ventures coming to fruition.
Over the past decade the world has been taken by surprise by the numerous accounting scandals that have occurred, for example, Enron, WorldCom, Tyco, Xerox, and Global Crossing (Suyanto, 2009, p. 118). Since those accounting scandals occurred the United States Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) to help improve a company’s corporate governance and help deter fraud (Chinniah, 2015, p.2). In addition to SOX, the Accounting Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) passed the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 99 (p. 118). Both of these new accounting laws help to deter financial statement fraud from occurring.
(3) 1984-1987: As a public company, overstating income to help insiders dump stock at inflated prices using a variety of fraudulent
We live in a world where, because of the Internet and the Web, we can communicate with someone in Africa or Asia as easily as we can communicate with someone in the office next door. A company like Xerox represents businesses all over the world, and the diversity of its employees is a big plus. Acknowledging our differences and
The Molex Corporation is an electronic connector manufacturing firm, which is based in Illinois. This company is facing a financial reporting problem in which the financial statements were overstated. Joe King ,the CEO of the company, was appointed in July of 2001, and was responsible for managing and inventory control, among other very important duties. Diane Bullock was hired in 2003, to replace the previous CFO. Both Bullock and King were being accused of what? by the external auditors, Deloitte & Touche, for not disclosing an 8 million pre-tax inventory valuation error.
Major advantage with this option is the fact that Xerox operates in the market it fully knows, dominates and controls. As a market leader, having gained clear edge over main competitor IBM, Xerox can consolidate its position with the introduction of innovative new product "Book-In-Time solution" that could significantly reduce the publishing costs.