The following are the Chinese dynasties in order from oldest to most recent: Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing. The legendary dynasty is the Xia, which is believed to be around 2000 BC. The Shang (1700-1000BC) developed the first written Chinese language. The Zhou (1028-221BC) built the first roads, expanded trade contacts and trade routes, and also developed plows and irrigation systems. Trade at this time was expanding in China. The Qin Dynasty (221-207BC) built the famous Great Wall of China as a defense mechanism and also united all of China under one central government. Next is the Han Dynasty (207BC-AD220), which did a lot for China in terms of trading. They developed the Great Silk Road, a trading route that stretched from China all the way to the Mediterranean Sea. The Sui Dynasty (589-618) united almost all of China. Followed in suit by the Tang Dynasty (618-917) discovered one of Chinas' leading exports, porcelain. During the Tang Dynasty, the first block-style printing press was invented. The Song Dynasty (960-1279) came next, which took over all of China and later took the southern rule after being conquered by the Jin. The Song Dynasty is responsible for developing Chinese cuisine as we know it today. During this time period the compass and gunpowder were also discovered. The Jin Dynasty (1127-1234) took rule over Northern China from the Song. The Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) brought a long period of peace to
The Han Dynasty of China from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. and the Imperial Roman Empire from 21 B.C.E. to 476 C.E. were large empires that dominated during their time periods.
During the Han Dynasty and later at the end of the Tang Dynasty during the classical/post-classical periods, the Chinese bureaucrat was the one came into power. Those bureaucrats who rose to power during the Han Dynasty, brought with them the philosophy of Confucianism. Although Confucianism was an ethical set of beliefs based on mutual respect, it was ultimately not very tolerant of anything that may challenge the authority and power of a Confucian bureaucrat. Confucianists had a tolerable relationship with Daoism, despite hostilities occurring from time to time. This happened because Confucian Scholars were against these views of Daoist thinking, especially as it pertained to Daoism’s support of mysteries and magic, however, they saw no real reason to challenge the influence it had.
Traditions & Encounters: Chapter 8, page 185: “Confucius emphasized personal qualities like ren, li, and xiao because he believed that individuals who possessed those traits would gain influence in the larger society...only through enlightened leadership by morally strong individuals was there any hope for the restoration of political and social order in China” This quote demonstrates the main three principles that Confucianism was based upon are what Confucius believed would better society. These principles would create a stronger government, leading to better policies, and a stronger sense of unity in the people.
during the Zhou Dynasty, China was experiencing a great deal of political turmoil. A major part of this era was called the Period of the Warring States. It was a time when there were numerous wars that occurred due to the conflict that existed between seven states. (Watkins, 2013) These warring states were the Han, Wu, Zhao, Chu, Qi, Yan and Jin. According to Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler of the book Traditions and Encounters, “This period forced some people to reflect on the nature of society, and the roles of humans beings within society.” The authors continued saying that it forced others to “identify principles that would restore political and social order.” (Bentley & Ziegler, 2011) The principles of Confucianism were established and followed in order to help the citizens of China to live and govern their communities more efficiently. Through Confucianism, Confucius helped legitimize China’s rule and bring about order in the mist of turmoil. The effects of Confucius’ principles are still seen and felt today in many aspects of modern day Chinese society. Veritably, there were points throughout Chinese history where Confucianism affected almost every aspect of life in China. Confucius has impacted the development of Chinese thought and culture in various ways from education to politics, to familial relationships.
Emperor- the emperor was at the top of the entire hierarchy and he ruled over the Dynasty while his family was rich and
Historians depend on textual, artistic, and archaeological evidence to create narratives about various historical cultures. By analyzing primary sources, historians can determine what type of society existed, what forms of government were in power, and even what society held to high standards, such as honor. Certainties about the Roman Empire, in Europe, experiencing civil unrest, eventual re-installment of the Republic, and expectation of its citizens are supported by the primary source, “The Rape of Lucretia.” Alternatively, certainties about the Shang Dynasty, in East Asian, utilizing religion and politics together to determine natural phenomenons in life are supported by the primary source, “Shang Oracle Bones.” Ultimately, primary sources give a pretty clear and reliable picture as to how society functioned during the time periods that are being studied.
The culture heavily changed in the role and power of women over the two dynasties. During the Tang dynasty women had a less restricted lifestyle. They had been able to have a large social life with greater freedom of the classical times. Even female deity were widely worshiped. But the Song dynasty after becoming Confucianism and a large growth in the economy a very heavy change into patriarchy took place. Women were very strictly restricted from social life and very subdue to remain” behind” there husband
As explained in World Religions Today, in contemporary culture, the discoveries made through science are usually articulated in the structure of mathematical equations. These mathematical equations serve as proofs of the fundamental truths that the particular science reveals. Analogous to this idea is the symbolism in the Yi-Jing system of East Asian Religions. The symbolization of the Yi-Jing system enriches the conceptualization of the universe as incessantly changing. Within the Yi-Jing system, the yin-yang symbol exemplifies the most familiar representation of these uncovered fundamental truths (Esposito 502-3). In this essay, I intend to explain the meaning of the terms yin and yang and discuss the role they play in Chinese religions generally. Further, I will explain the way in which the symbolism of yin and yang contribute to the Chinese conception of the universe and the way that role is played out in religious practices.
The contrarian argument of Confucianism as a religion is somewhat convoluted, and all the less convincing as a result. It has been argued that Confucianism and particularly Confucian ethics have to be separated a little from Confucius himself. The argument runs that, because of the missing items discussed
Confucianism was founded by the first Chinese thinker to address both the political and social order of things straightforwardly and self- consciously. Kong Fuzi, or Confucius in English, lived from 551-479 B.C.E., but his teachings did not reach their full potential during the his life of an educator and political advisor born into an aristocratic family. Confucius gathered many disciples to spread his beliefs that were rooted in moral, ethical, and political character. He didn’t address questions about religion because he believed they were above the human moral intelligence capacity, nor those regarding obscure, complicated philosophical questions because they would not help solve the problems of China. Confucius did not really even care about the state, but he did believe
People of the Chinese culture have many different beliefs and practices of medicine and healthcare. It is extremely important for nurses to be culturally competent and to be able to understand different practices and beliefs of different cultures to ensure that they are providing the best care and making their patients as comfortable as possible. According to Shih-Yu Lee, ritual is defined as “a social essential collective activity within a culture,” it is also well recognized that culture and ritual plays a fundamental role in “defining, sensing the health and illness, and searching help for problems” (Shih-Yu, Shu-Ling, and Yu-O, 2013). There are many rituals and beliefs of traditional Chinese medicine that are crucial to understand, the
People sceptical of Chinese traditional culture’s relevance to modern environmental concerns will point out that ancient Chinese had no term for nature in, as it were, the David Attenborough sense – nature as what natural historians study, and what TV nature programmes are programmes about. This does not mean that the Chinese were unable to talk about natural landscapes and wild things, nor that their concept of nature were without implications for our relationship to nature in this sense. It does indicate, though, that the Chinese were not wedded to ‘a wilderness ideal’ and that they did not emphasis a sharp distinction between the human and nature world.