Between 1968 and 1912, Japan was going through a reformation called Meiji Restoration in order make the country strong as western countries. It had caused changes in many parts of Japan such as society, government, military, etc. Some of these changes still can be seen in the Japanese society today such as emperors are honored by Japanese citizens and seen as a special figure. Since this reformation had a great impact on development of Japan, it can be consider as a very important part of Japanese history.This study will seek to answer the question: To what extent did the Meiji Restoration succeeded to reform and strengthen Japan? In order to answer the question, the investigation will analyze military reform and economic reform caused by
The system’s notable elements mainly consisted in anti-labor and pro-business policies that protected the home market from outside influence with low levels of social welfare spending, making Japan pass through a growth period though, at the same time, such system presented cases of Diet’s unconstitutionalism, corruption scandals, and a lack of organization in more than one aspect.
The working poor which made up the majority of the Japanese citizens were not allowed to become involved in any non-agricultural economic pursuits. Therefore, maintaining constant and traditional Japanese values, yet the Dutch whom were the only foreign power allowed to trade with the Japanese at the port of Nagasaki warned the shogunate that they would have to “accede to foreign demands.” Many young scholars and the samurai class agreed with the Dutch logic in that it is not smart for the Japanese to become stagnant while the rest of the world is booming a merchant dominated economic system. Many scholars such as Fukuzawa Yukichi were worried about the state of the government and stated “I was mortified when I thought over the possible outcome of national exclusiveness.” This hindrance by the government in order to preserve the traditions of Japan irked the citizens in that the “stability” of the shogunate was regression as a culture rather than progress which is what most felt that the government should be striving
After centuries of living in seclusion to the outside world, the government knew that they needed the technological advancements that the West offered. The Industrial Revolution and growing urbanisation in Japan had intended to and succeeded in mimicking Western growth. Moreover, the Japanese were well-known for their diligence, discipline, perseverance, and hard work – this resulted in substantial economic development including increased shipping of commodities and a significant expansion of trade and handicraft industries. However, the political elite pocketed most of the profits through influence and corruption. Workers and farmers found it unfair that their patriotic and back-breaking labour only received a little wage in comparison, but with a state-controlled media and education system, they couldn’t make their voices heard. So overall, this collective and nationalistic open-mindedness for communal prosperity was beneficial for Japan as a whole, but the common people were disadvantaged with no access to basic human rights and a fair
This portion of the book focuses on how the war was useful in making Japan an economic power. Dower begins by explaining that postwar Japan’s success can be
In 1850-1935, Japan has become an industrial power and replaced its traditional, feudal government with a regime in which ministers appointed by the emperor combined with parliament. The interwar years were not a time of crisis for Japan, however. During the 1920s, new cultural developments, an expanding economy and a brief commitment to liberal democracy produced important currents as well. In the 1930s, Japan turned to a more adventurous foreign policy in response to economic challenge and political change. Japan participated in the global economy by changing its government to benefit the economy, the emergence of open trade and still continuing to depend heavily on imports of raw materials.
Beginning from the last years of World War II and then following Japan’s defeat to the allied forces, the Japanese had to endure arguably its most painful few years to date. The majority of Japan’s cities had all been completely destroyed during the war, especially in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where the first atomic bombs were dropped. As a result, the majority of Japanese population had to not only survive the extremes of the seasons in make-shift shelters, but also endure starvation due to the lack of food and water available. However, thanks to the American occupation of Japan following the end of the war, Japan was finally able to recover. The year 1950 turned out to be the beginning of an extended period of Japanese economic and social prosperity. Starting from 1950 to 1990, Japan had experienced unrivalled miraculous economic growth and success in comparison to the majority of other developed countries. For this reason, the Japanese economic success during this period is known by many as the “economic miracle”. There are multiple reasons behind this so called “miracle”, and this essay explores some of these causes. In particular focusing on the major factors which include; the American occupation of Japan, the Korean and Vietnam War as well as social and economic reasons.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a result of several events associated with Japan’s mission to dominate Eastern Asia and the South Pacific. Before the 1930’s, Japan had one the world’s most prosperous economies due to the British economic slump in the 1920’s. The Japanese overtook the markets the British had previously dominated. This economic growth only lasted for ten years. In the early 1930’s, Japan suffered its largest economic downturn as a result of the World Great Depression. During this time, many countries stopped trading with Japan, leading to a 50% drop in their exported goods. The Japanese government believed if they moved away from a Western-style free market economy, they would recover from their economic crisis.
The economies of the U.S. and Japan are very integrated in terms of trade in goods and services. As stated in the article the article, “Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress,” of the Congressional Research Service, the U.S. is the world’s largest economy and Japan is the world’s third-largest economy. This status makes the U.S. and Japan valuable trading partners, considering the U.S. was Japan’s second-largest source of imports and their largest export partner as of 2014 (Chanlett-Avery, Manyin, et.al). One can see through examining past economic crises in Okinawa and the U.S. that such incidences impede healthy global relationships. In the article, “U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy Options,” William H. Cooper, specialist in international Trade and Finance, explains ways in which two specific Japanese economic crises affected global relations. One financial crisis occurred in 2008, when the economies of the U.S. and Europe were declining, leading to a decline in global demand for Japanese exports. Another occurred in 2011, following the tsunami, earthquake, and a nuclear incident in northeast Japan. These exigencies lead to great deficits, specifically in U.S. and European trade (Cooper, 2014). As previously mentioned, Okinawa has been unable to develop a self-sufficient economy. These past economic crises show that when Japan is economically
Its actions have helped initiate new industries, cushion the effects of economic depression, create a sound economic infrastructure, and protect the living standards of the citizenry. Indeed, so pervasive has government influence in the economy seemed that many foreign observers have popularized the term "Japan Inc." to describe its alliance of business and government interests. Whether Japan in the mid-1990s fit this picture seems questionable, but there is little doubt that government agencies continue to influence the economy through a variety of policies. Not only did the American press use the same terms as the federal government, but in doing so it also helped lay the framework of the Japanese- American internment in a completely inaccurate way (Lau, 2014).
Japan’s unemployment rate of about 4% opposed to the U.S. unemployment rate of close to 10%. Even the financial debt to GDP ration is an advantage, and debt in the private sector has not increased unlike the U.S. and European countries, (Time, 2009). In addition, since Japan is a huge exporter and with the U.S. demand going downward, the international balances and growth declined especially as the dollar value dropped and the yen surged. •
Today in Japan, a reinvention is necessary. There are many struggles with the young generation, the old generation, and catastrophic events which should be addressed. Specifically, the Japanese economy has been experiencing deflation for the past twenty years. In an article, the results of the deflation were described. The authors said, “Because of fewer available jobs and lower
In 1945, Japan was devastated and lost a quarter of the national wealth after suffering a defect in the second world war. A majority of the commercial buildings and accommodation had been demolished, and massive machinery and equipment formerly used in production for the civil market were out of service to provide metal for military supplies (Miyazaki 1967). Despite the trash and ruins had left over in Japan, Japan was able to rebuilding its infrastructure and reconstruct their economy. It is revealed that the Japanese economy was on its way to recovery, which received a rapid development since the war, and the reconstruction of Japan had spent less than forty years to become the world’s second largest economy in the 1980s. This essay will explore the three factors account for the economic growth of post-war Japan: the financial assistance from the United States, the external environment, and the effective policy of Japanese government.
In addition to the causes above, the following events have further deepened Japan’s economic situation during the Lost Decades:
In hopes of placing Japanese economy back on a stable growth path, my suggestion is to make adjustments that affect job securities among employees, increasing economic certainties among married Japanese couples and stimulating their fertility decisions. In addition, women at their reproductive age should be supported in taking childcare leaves. Substituting labor-saving technology and better utilizing older workers are possible ways of coping with Japan’s labor shortage. To revive the economic growth, regulatory changes allow banks to classify restructured Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ (SME) loans “normal” if a company demonstrates its ability to make the loan perform from five to ten years.