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Zero Tolerance Policy

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The school to prison pipeline through zero-tolerance policies is a fairly new subject in the public education community. The introduction of these policies began in the 1980’s as a solution to counteract the ever-growing drug rise the era was having. Johanna Wald (2003) defines, ““the prison track,” and the “school- to-prison pipeline.” These phrases refer to a journey through school that is increasingly punitive and isolating for its travelers—many of whom will be placed in restrictive special education programs, repeatedly suspended, held back in grade, and banished to alternative, “outplacements” before finally dropping or getting “pushed out” of school altogether.” Research on this subject comes from two branches: sociology and psychology.…show more content…
However, not all theories this subject offers can be applied with a sociological standpoint due to the psychological effects a student undergoes experiencing a harsh policy. Literature provided in support constantly reminds the community about the disparities, the gender factors, minorities, socioeconomic levels, and the ever-growing barriers. Recently, research is further exclaiming the crisis America’s public education system is undergoing. It is becoming apparent how the rise of suspensions and expulsions in middle schools, further affects the future decisions a student makes (Losen, Skiba 2010); further in, the role reversal from being a student to becoming criminal/prisoner. Hence, the research is pure. It further examines and exclaims the damage, zero-tolerance policies have in the education system and students; further on, the penetration into the criminal justice system. Overall, there is a deficit on the in-depth explanations why and what are the internal/external factors that continuously push a student to fail, and further on becoming a number in the criminal justice…show more content…
In the field study, the general hypothesis consist of correlation between school to prison pipeline and zero-tolerance policies. Further on, factors like educator resistance, minority (including disabled and LGBTQ) discrimination, and high crime communities are key characteristic. Balfanz, Herzog, and Iver (2007) composed,“living in distressed neighborhoods; and attending chaotic, disorganized, and under resourced schools characterized by high levels of teacher turnovers and vacancies all combine to promote student disengagement during the middle-school years.” This psychological exclamation further creates the baseline to better understand the relationship between school to prison pipeline, zero-tolerance policy, rejected students, and the factors an educator plays in deciding whom is fit. Hirschfield (2008) unfolded a key theory from Wacquant, “The divergence pattern most fundamental and worthy of explanation is that criminalization is more prevalent and intense in schools that are heavily populated by disadvantaged urban minorities (Wacquant, 2001).” Hirschfield, furthered explained how the divergence pattern illustrates how mass funds are invested into incarceration in the event that schools become deprived of important funds that would enhance a child’s education (Hirschfield, Celinska 2011). Since it is a fairly new subject there are a number of comparable hypothesis with common themes,
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