However, disease on the epidemic scale did not appear till certain conditions existed, conditions created namely by the Agricultural Revolution. As communities became more sedentary and developed a more stable means of food production through the domestication of animals and irrigation processes, populations were able to increase at exponential rates, one of the fundamental prerequisites for an epidemic outbreak. An increased population translated into closer living conditions, less sanitary means of waste disposal due to sheer volume, and typically, poorer nutrition, making people more susceptible to a breakdown of the immune system. A higher population, in comparison to that of their hunting and gathering predecessors, meant a greater chance for contracting an illness. Equally important, the Agricultural Revolution demanded the domestication of animals. In living in close proximity to cattle, hogs, and other useful livestock, a phenomenon known as species cross-over took place. This species cross-over refers to the mutation of diseases typically found in livestock to a new form that seeks out a human host. The most classic and devastating example is small pox, a highly fatal disease that causes sores to form on the body and known in cattle as cowpox (Ponting, 225-226). This, coupled with irrigation, providing a host for water-born diseases like malaria and schistosomiasis, sheds a bit of light on the magnitude of the influence of the Agricultural
1. The factors that are listed in 1.2 are world population growth, ecological disturbances, technological advancements, microbial evolution and adaptation, and human behavior and attitudes. World population growth can impact the spread because if we are looking at just one area of people that is extremely crowded and one of them has a disease; by person to person contact it can spread more easily compared to an area of people that is less compacted with people. Ecological disturbances such as climate changes, and natural disasters, can increase spreading of Zika because climate has a lot to do with where the mosquitos, and they also need places to live. If we had a natural disaster such as a flood, that is a lot of water and that’s what mosquitos
The conditions that contribute to the ability of diseases to flourish and spread are climate changes, globalization, urbanization, and creating medication that no longer kills the disease. These diseases are able to survive and become powerful because of they are able to evolve rapidly to our changing society.
An ‘emerging’ disease is one that is speedily increasing in frequency or distribution. This expression not only circumscribes the diseases corresponding with previously unknown agents, but additional known diseases that are ‘re-emerging’, as well. What is it that provokes disease emergence? Epidemiological principles profess that disease is multi-factorial. That is, in inclusion to the existence of the infectious agent, additional factors, such as the agent, host, and/or the environment are all generally imperative for infection and disease to occur. But who would have concluded that one of the most menacing viral infections would result from a mammal? The Nipah Virus Infection (NiV) is a known emerging infection, targeting the public health
Most parasitic diseases can not be contracted in the United States but when traveling, you can catch it. Luckily, you can take some precautions to avoid contracting them. There are some diseases contracted by consuming contaminated water and food. Some of the preventative measures that should be taken to avoid this is keeping away from drinking the water, swimming only in designated swimming areas, not swimming in freshwater and avoiding swallowing water when swimming, steer clear from cooked food from street vendors, raw vegetables, and unpasteurized dairy foods such as milk or cheese. You should also get specific vaccinations before entering different countries like diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Influenza, Measles, Polio, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has recently noted several model antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains with redesigned capabilities in pathogenesis, transmission and resistance. These several strains, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species, have been given the acronym-based title of the ESKAPE Pathogens. These
Is the food were eating safe? What exactly is going into my body? Will I get sick or die from eating or drinking this? These are questions millions of Americans are puzzled with everyday. Approximately 325,000 Americans are fossilized and 5,000 die from food-borne disease. Some people think that whatever they are eating and putting into their bodies is safe, for me, that’s not true.
After a civilization gains domesticable animals they will contract some of the diseases those animals hold. One key example are the Spanish, they contracted smallpox from some of their domesticable animals, and although it did kill much of their population eventually they gained an immunity to the disease, but they were still carriers of it. The Inca, which the Spanish later came into contact with, contracted smallpox. This was because they didn’t have an immunity to the disease, because they didn’t have any domesticable animals except llamas, which didn’t carry
The most significant global health issue in the United States (U.S.) and one that poses the most danger is climate change. Climate change is a major global health issue that many of us do not understand, do not take seriously, nor do not consider to be a major health
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define epidemic as “the occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a given area or among a specific group of people over a particular period of time.” Epidemic of an infectious disease can be precipitated by a change in the host population, for example, an increase in the density of a vector species or an introduction of a new parasite due to an ecological disaster (flooding, famine, earthquake, etc). Epidemic can also be caused by human behavior (population growth and migration, war, sexual behavior, urban decay, etc), international travel (movement of goods and people), technology and industry (widespread use of antibiotics, organ/tissue transplantation, food processing/packaging, etc), and microbial evolution (adaptation of microbial organism to the environment). In the recent years, delayed or inadequate prevention programs or lack of effective communications between the public health agencies has contributed to the insurgence of epidemics.
Climate change increases the possibility of extreme weather events which in turn makes disease transmission more frequent in poor, developing countries. The weather event known as El Nino has been determined to be one of the leading environmental factors that influences disease. El Nino is a band of warmer than average water, which
In Moscow, feral dogs have learned how to effectively ride the subway system and will turn and attack humans that mistake them for a domesticated species. (Macdonald) Older deer seem to have learned how to cross the street safely, as they look back and forth the entire time they are
These vectors can carry infective pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, which can be transferred from one host (carrier) to another. The seasonality, distribution, and prevalence of vector-borne diseases are influenced significantly by climate factors, primarily high and low temperature extremes and precipitation patterns. Climate change is likely to have both short- and long-term effects on vector-borne disease transmission and infection patterns, affecting both seasonal risk and broad geographic changes in disease occurrence over decades (see Figure ES6). While climate variability and climate change both alter the transmission of vector-borne diseases, they will likely interact with many other factors, including how pathogens adapt and change, the availability of hosts, changing ecosystems and land use, demographics, human behavior, and adaptive capacity. These complex interactions make it difficult to predict the effects of climate change on vector-borne
Diseases: Global warming may increase the risk of some infectious diseases, like malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and encephalitis. These diseases are spread by mosquitoes and other insects, and could become more common if a rise in temperature allows those insects to live farther north. Also, the increase in rainfall that is likely to occur with an increase in global temperature would serve to help increase the reproduction of the vectors. In February 1999, Britain's Institute of Animal Health linked outbreaks of the lethal horse fever virus in Africa to the El Nino phenomenon. The warming and increase in rainfall in Africa caused by El Nino led to many more horses being bitten by infected vectors. The scientists said their research shows this pattern is likely to happen with other vector-borne diseases when global warming occurs. Increased temperatures could also reduce the gestation periods of disease vectors, which could aid the breeding of strains resistant to pesticides. Scientists also hypothesize that algae
“The rodents spread the plague from China to Europe and it hit Britain in 1348.”(Bates, Claire) So if the world is so populated more people will be homeless, and the disease could spread easier wiping out millions. The black death was also spread by people getting bites from infected rats, the disease travels through the body into the lungs, and when the person coughs or sneezes, the disease is transmitted into the air and can infect people who breath in that same air. So if the world becomes too over populated and there aren’t enough houses people will be living on the streets where disease could spread easier and faster just like the black death. “Indirect contact infections spread when an infected person sneezes or coughs, sending infectious droplets into the air.”(DIRECT…) So if everyone if coughing and sneezing then anyone who breathes in that contaminated air could get the disease. “Last year, it called dengue the “most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease” in the world—faster than West Nile virus or malaria.”(The deadly…) If this disease was to break out when the world is overpopulated a disease could take out almost half the entire human race.There are hundreds of diseases that can be spread by animals, some examples are all types of Influenza, Bubonic Plague, zoonotic diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and Polio. One disease is the Zika virus, it is spread by mosquito bites who bite women and when if the infected women gets pregnant the Zika virus transfers the virus to the child, once the child is born the child could be born with a fatal brain defect. When the world becomes more populated more people could get bit with more mosquitos and get the Zika virus and a whole new generation of kids could be born with a brain