cultural influences on leadership

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Cultural Influences on Leadership

What is leadership?
What is Cross-Cultural Leadership?
Related Theories
1. Implicit Leadership Theory
2. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
4. Leadership Styles Accross Cultures
Paternalistic Leadership
Transformational & Transactional Leadership
What is “national culture”?
Analysis of Hofstede 's cultural dimensions theory
Hofstede 's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society 's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis
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Uncertainty avoidance scores are the highest in Latin American countries, Southern and Eastern Europe countries including German speaking countries, and Japan. They are lower for Anglo, Nordic, and Chinese culture countries. However few countries have very low UAI. For example, Germany has a high UAI (65) and Belgium even more (94) compared to Sweden (29) or Denmark (23) despite their geographical proximity.
Masculinity (MAS), vs. femininity
The distribution of emotional roles between the genders. Masculine cultures ' values are competitiveness, assertiveness, materialism, ambition and power, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life. In masculine cultures, the differences between gender roles are more dramatic and less fluid than in feminine cultures where men and women have the same values emphasizing modesty and caring. As a result of the taboo on sexuality in many cultures, particularly masculine ones, and because of the obvious gender generalizations implied by Hofstede 's terminology, this dimension is often renamed by users of Hofstede 's work, e.g. to Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life.
Masculinity is extremely low in Nordic countries: Norway scores 8 and Sweden only 5. In contrast, Masculinity is very high in Japan (95), and in European countries like Hungary, Austria and Switzerland influenced by German culture. In the Anglo world, masculinity scores are relatively high with 66 for the United Kingdom for
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