Although the hierarchy of needs and Humanistic Psychology were innovative during it was and is still criticized today. One of such criticisms is self-actualization and that Maslow gave very ambiguous characteristics and examples of people he thought to be self-actualized. In addition, the hierarchy of needs is hard to prove scientifically. Self- actualization relies mostly on a person’s experience. Therefore, one can’t tell if an individual is self-actualized. However humanistic psychology changed the way human behavior was viewed during a time where behavioral psychology was more prevalent. This introduced a new way of
Humanistic theories emerged in 1950s. We have two types of humanistic theories, the first one is Person-centred theory by Carl Rogers which is based on how people see them-selves in relation to their personal experience and the second theory is Self-actualisation by Abraham Maslow which is based on the needs that motivate people. In this paper both theories will be described in detail and also they will be evaluated.
* The need for self actualisation is the pinnacle of human needs according to Maslow. To reach the point where these needs are met, one needs not only to have met the previous four, but needs to have mastered them as
Humanistic perspective is a psychological perspective popularized by Carlo Rogers and Abraham Maslow that emphasizes the human capacity for choice and growth. This perspective offers a very positive viewpoint of human nature and potential. It suggests that we are each responsible for our own happiness and well-being as humans. “The humanistic approach emphasizes the personal worth of the individual, the centrality of human
A self-actualized individual has met all the lower level needs in the hierarchy—physiological needs, safety, belongingness and love, and self-esteem—and feels they are realizing their potential and fulfilling their purpose (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2013). These needs are met in order, and according to Maslow, one cannot skip ahead to a higher-level need if they have not fulfilled a basic need (Hagerty, 1999). Indeed Ed has physiological and safety needs met, as his pension and Laura’s retirement fund provide the means for food and housing in a safe neighborhood where he is not in any immediate danger. Ed has a strong social network of his wife, children, and friends from his various organizations and clubs. He displays a sense of respect for himself and people in his neighborhood, and can identify achievements he made in life, particularly graduating high school, getting promoted young in the Navy, and getting high-level promotions in the fire
Psychologist, born in Susquhanna, Pa. He studied at Harvard, teaching there (1931-6, 1947-74). A leading behaviorist, he is a proponent of operant conditioning, and the inventor of the Skinner box for facilitating experimental observations.
Abraham Maslow theorized the concept of self-actualization which is the term used to describe the state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potentials in their own unique way. Maslow’s theory includes sublevels that must be achieved before reaching self-actualization. In this paper, I will explain how each of his previous levels have affected my life, and give an idea of when I may hope to achieve self-actualization. Self-actualization is the term that Abraham Maslow used to describe the state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potentials in their own unique way. The personal reflections accommodate to my perspective of the Maslow’s Theory.
Needs for Self-Actualization-When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write." These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking something, in short, restless. If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or lacking
For this essay, I will be examining the article “Absurd Self-Fulfillment,” written by Joel Feinberg. I will be pinpointing the central conclusion of this article, as well as the argument’s premises and the article’s central argument. I will also explain how the article relates to the film Being John Malkovich, and finally the school of philosophy, which we call “existentialism” and three of its central tenets.
Stephen A. Douglas was born in 1813. He was born in Vermont, he studied law in New York, and in 1833 he moved to Illinois where he would become a resident and be part of major changes in history there. This state is where Douglas really found his home. Douglas was a politician in the United States, a Democratic Party leader and an orator. Andrew Jackson influenced Douglas greatly, and Jackson really grabbed Douglas’s attention and interest. Douglas ended up building his career as a Jacksonian. He helped to organize the Democratic Party in Illinois. In this state, he introduced party committees and nominating conventions. He also pushed for party discipline and party consistency. He was very popular, especially with the local farmers. Many people that he was popular with had actually migrated from the South. Although Stephen A. Douglas was Abraham Lincoln’s opponent in many debates, Douglas was still very popular and was actually re-elected senator of Illinois. But, Lincoln did end up beating Douglas in the presidential election just two years after Douglas had been reelected as senator. Despite the presidential defeat, Douglas was still able to use his popularity to his advantage, and this is what helped him to develop a well-established Democratic organization.
However, any person who is motivated to become fully self-aware can do so thorough life experiences, including those experiences achieve in a therapeutic milieu. Ultimately, each person is responsible for their own lives and the opportunities that are perceived by individuals are often stunted because of an individuals life experiences, perceptions and feelings. While people seek to be connected to others as they are innately social and through these social experiences shape their own personalities, lives and the world around them. Ideally, people can work toward achieving their lives in ways that are integrated and fulfilling. It is thorough personal freedom and understanding of the self that this occurs (Corey, 2013).
Human beings have a need for self-actualization that involves growing towards courage, kindness, knowledge, love, honesty, and unselfishness. When we fulfill this need, we feel serene, joyful, filled with zest, sometimes euphoric, and generally happy. When we act contrary to our need for self-actualization, we experience anxiety, despair, boredom, shame, emptiness and are generally unable to enjoy ourselves. (Singer 327-328).
Managing resources efficiently and effectively is the most fundamental goal for organisation which aims to maximise individual and social prosperity. Therefore, the management theory is constantly developing. In 20th century, there were several management theories proposed such as scientific management, administrative management, behavioural management, etc. as increasingly aware of human are crucial element of the organisation and vital in influencing overall organisational performance, Douglas McGregor who studied about how workers’ behaviour effect the manager’s leadership, proposed Theory X and Y (Waddell et al. 2007). It is no doubt this conventional concept still correct in 21st century, however, business environment is significant