That evening after his walk with Enfield, Utterson returns home and examines Dr. Jekyll 's will, which he remembers had strange stipulations referring to the Mr. Hyde Enfield discussed. The will provides that in the case of Henry Jekyll 's death or disappearance, all of his possessions should be given to the Edward Hyde. Utterson was uncomfortable when Jekyll originally requested this stipulation, and is further upset by it after hearing of Mr. Hyde 's despicable behavior. After considering the implications of the will with what he has learned about Edward Hyde, Utterson goes to visit Dr. Lanyon, another dear friend of Dr. Jekyll 's. When the men begin talking about Jekyll, Utterson discovers that Lanyon has not spoken to Jekyll for a long period of time due to a disagreement over "unscientific balderdash." Utterson also learns that Lanyon has never heard of Hyde.
If Hyde has been described as Hyde "savage, uncivilized, and given to passion…poorly evolved" (Shubh), then perhaps he represents the true, original nature of man, repressed by society, norms, and conscience. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde suggests that this restrained, amoral side of human nature, once given a chance to escape, cannot be controlled. Even in this 'height of western civilization', Victorian England, this tempting evil can overcome even the most virtuous of men. Jekyll is neither good nor bad, but a man whose deeply repressed urges motivated him to separate, but not remove, the evil parts of his nature. There is a misinterpretation that Hyde is an unwanted byproduct of trying to create pure good, that Jekyll is not in control as Hyde, and that Jekyll doesn't enjoy being Hyde. In fact, Jekyll loves being Hyde, he revels in the freedom that he brings him (Stevenson 54), but the problems with his dual personality starts when he has to face the consequences of his actions. Jekyll has a difficult time balancing Hyde's debaucheries and Jekyll's rational, refined side. However, Jekyll realizes too late that he has indulged in Hyde too much and has let him grow out of control. At the beginning of the novel, Hyde was the “smaller, slighter, and younger than Henry Jekyll” (Stevenson 57). His more youthful appearance represents how young and free Jekyll feels as Hyde, but also symbolizes how little his personality was seen before Jekyll drank his potion. Early in the novel, Hyde is easily controlled, Jekyll can use his potion to limit how often he transforms into Hyde (Stevenson 56). However, as he starts to morph back and forth, it starts to take more and more potion to control the switches until
Eventually due to the inaccuracy of his ‘unscientific balderdash’ (as spoken by Lanyon) something goes wrong and his changes from Jekyll to Hyde become more irrepressible, ‘My blood was changed into something exquisitely thin and icy. Yes I had gone to bed Henry Jekyll, I had awakened Edward Hyde.’ He lacks the power or strength to stop these changes. Hyde seems to perform the metamorphosis without warning or consent. I believe this to be significant to the fact that Hyde is becoming stronger and less willing to do as dictated, and because he, the inner demon, has been exercised at such a severe extent he had become a bigger part of Jekyll and so containing the inner beast becomes harder. Stevenson writes ‘the powers of Hyde seemed to grow with the sickliness of Jekyll.’ I do not think he wrote this meaning a literal sickness but was instead talking about the mental deterioration of Jekyll. The distinction of the unplanned and unwelcome changes between Jekyll and Hyde is symbolic to the fact that as the lines forming the distinction of the personality of Hyde and Jekyll began to merge thus so did the transition.
Hyde’s appearance suggests, his behavior is also vicious. One night he tramples over a child’s body leaving her screaming and a sight “hellish to see” (Stevenson 3). Another night he breaks out in rage and beats a man to death with his cane for no apparent reason. As opposed to Dr. Jekyll, Mr. Hyde has no conscience; he feels no remorse in his actions. Mr. Hyde is the embodiment of pure evil, which is why no one could recognize that this man is actually the other half of Dr. Jekyll.
In Robert Louis Stevenson’s, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll’s struggle between two personalities is the cause of tragedy and violence. Dr. Jekyll takes his friends loyalty and unknowingly abuses it. In this novella, Stevenson shows attributes of loyalty, how friendship contributes to loyalty, and how his own life affected his writing on loyalty.
Seeing how Jekyll is a respectable member of society, he cannot fulfill his evil desires and he feels crushed by society’s judgmental ways and begins to ponder what life would be like if he were allowed to be different. He gives into his fascination and starts to experiment using the power of science and in turn concocts a potion which allows him to transform into Hyde, his evil “twin”. At first, he was satisfied, living this other side of himself, but then it turned into something horrific, causing him to trample a young girl and killing a completely innocent man. Jekyll states in his letter to Utterman “…I was still cursed with my duality of purpose…” (page 72). Stevenson concludes that man is not in fact a purely dual being, but a primitive being, tamed and civilized by the laws of society. Stevenson portrays Hyde in highly animalistic terms – short and hairy with gnarled hands and a horrific face. In contrast, Jekyll is described in the most gentlemanly terms - tall, refined, polite and honorable, with long elegant fingers and a handsome appearance. Thus, perhaps Jekyll's experiment reduces his being to its most basic form, in which evil runs freely without considering the constraints of society and civilization.
Jekyll is tempted to do bad things and he uses Hyde to overcome his temptations. Jekyll gets his satisfaction of doing bad deeds by becoming Hyde. Jekyll says “If each, I told myself, could be housed in separate identities, life would be relieved of all that was unbearable; the unjust might go his way” (Page 105). He states that he wants to do bad things but knowing he cant and still live the life he has, he uses Hyde as an escape from his temptations. Once Jekyll is able to control his temptations but still do bad as Mr. Hyde he says “I felt younger, lighter, happier in the body” (Page 106) Mr. Hyde is Jekyll’s way of escaping his sophisticated lifestyle and entering a totally separate way of life. Jekyll then didn’t feel any guilt for Hyde’s actions.
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Jekyll’s id is Mr. Hyde. As stated in an outside source, “A study in dualism: The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,” “Mr. Hyde would seem easily recognizable as the id, seeking instant gratification, having an aggressive instinct, and having no moral or social mores that need be followed,” (Singh and Chakrabarti 13). Mr. Hyde as seen multiple times throughout the novel, expresses one of the components of the id mentioned in the quotation. One example showing how he lives by no morals or values is when he kill Sir Danvers Carew. Hyde beat him to death out of impulse when he passed him late at night on the street. This murder also represents how Mr. Hyde shows aggression. Instant gratification is seen towards the end of the novel. In chapter 10 Jekyll says “My devil had been long caged, he came out roaring,” (Stevenson 92). Hyde could not withhold being repressed anymore and breaks out without Dr. Jekyll’s potion. He does this because he is looking for pleasure. This relates to Freud’s pleasure principle where it is Hyde’s instinct to transform to be
In order to make his point more believable, it is important that Jekyll includes a back story explaining exactly why he created Hyde to begin with. Jekyll is an intelligent, well-respected man in his community with large sums of money, yet he turns himself into Hyde, who is hated by nearly everyone upon first-glance. While this is a confusing state of events, Jekyll gives a historical precedent to facilitate his explanation. In the opening of his letter, Jekyll gives an in-depth description of the pressures he faced being born “to a large fortune, endowed besides with excellent parts, inclined by nature to industry, fond of the respect of the wise and good among my fellow men, and thus, as might have been supposed.” (47). Being born into wealth and respect gave Jekyll no chance to escape societal pressures, which were exceptionally high during the Victorian Era. Jekyll continues by asserting that he “found it hard to reconcile with [his] imperious desire to carry [his] head high and wear a more than commonly grave countenance before the public. Hence it came about that [he] concealed [his] pleasures.” (48). Jekyll’s conflict between societies expectations and what he really wants to do leads him to find a solution: Hyde. When Jekyll first turns into Hyde, he is in awe because he
Despite saying this Jekyll still succumbs to his Id and Hyde is drawn out again. Jekyll knows of the evil that comes out when he transforms into Hyde. Jekyll says “This, as I take it, was because all human beings, as we meet them are commingled out of good and evil: and Edward Hyde alone in the ranks of mankind, was pure evil”(Stevenson 108). Here Jekyll clearly states that he knows Hyde is evil yet he still cannot overpower his Id and then his Superego is overcome. By turning into Hyde, Jekyll feels free and can do whatever he wants without the slightest hesitation. Following his innate desires Hyde murders Sir Danvers Carew and tramples a young girl. These actions are done through the Id and even though Jekyll is civilized law abiding man once the Id has taken over and he transforms into Hyde, his dark side is unleashed. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are but one; one body but two conflicting characters, the good and evil.
The novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson, was written revolving around two main characters, Dr. Henry Jekyll, and Mr. Edward Hyde. The story is about a doctor who experiments with ways to liberate his darker side, but the experiment allows that dark side to come out and take over his body. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are clearly two different personalities because of their physical, mental, and moral differences.
Lanyon’s description of Hyde is that he is something abnormal. Everyone gets a sense of unease upon seeing him. He seems so unnatural and like the creature in Frankenstein, he cannot fit into the society. By this creation of a counterpart, the unacceptable Hyde, he allows him be a part of the society. Hyde cannot be accepted as a human being, so Jekyll betrays his community. The consequences are devastating. Jekyll becomes isolated with his counterpart and he is unable to rid himself of Hyde. Much like Victor Frankenstein, Jekyll pays with his
While student Ryan Vullo claims “that Mr. Hyde commits suicide”, this is entirely wrong. A human brain contains two hemispheres: the left brain and the right brain. Fredric Myers notes that the left brain contains the “sinister” (135) attitude and a “lower degree of evolution” (135) while the right brain contains the “higher quailites of character” (135) such as “self-control” (135) and “has risen from the savage level” (135). With these definitions, it can be concluded that Jekyll inhabits the right brain while Hyde inhabits the left brain. Jekyll, his side of the brain, and body are known as “rational, civilized, European, and highly evolved” (Showalter 1433).
Henry Jekyll, "The Evil", is mean, cold, and a murderer. He is much more bold and confident than Mr. Hyde. His first murder is of a little girl on the street who he calmly tramples over. He shows no remorse what so ever, and doesn't care at all because afterwards he continues down the street. "Well, sir, the two ran into one another naturally enough at the corner; and then came the horrible part of the thing; for the man trampled calmly over the child's body and left her screaming on the ground."(page 337) Dr. Jekyll also wants to get rid of Mr. Hyde, as if he doesn't know they are the same. "I would trust you before any man alive, ay, before myself, if I could make the choice; but indeed t isn't what you fancy; it is not so bad as that; and just put your good heart at rest, I will tell you one thing: the moment I choose I can be rid of Mr. Hyde."(page 349) These words Jekyll says show that he doesn't understand Hyde and himself are the
Imagery plays a key role in the exploration of Dr. Jekyll's double character. Stevenson's use of imagery intensifies the plot and its relationship between good and evil (Rollyson 1863-1864). For example, Hyde is described as "apelike" and "like a monkey" while Dr. Jekyll is portrayed as handsome and elegant with "proper stature" (25-26, 38). This example indicates a "reverse evolutionary process" and confirms Jekyll's disastrous attempt to interfere with the order of nature (Page 763). In general, Hyde is illustrated as animalistic, ugly, and deformed mainly to conjure an evil opinion of this character. However, the physical description may be more than simply symbolic. "During the Victorian era, many believed in physiognomy," which was the belief that one could judge a criminal from his or her physical appearance. Hyde is depicted as a vampire who "feeds on the very life of his victims" (Abbey, et al. 327). ."..[Hyde was] drinking pleasure with bestial avidity from any degree of torture to another, relentless like a man of stone" (33). This vampire image suggests the way in which indulgence of evil eats away man's capacity for goodness. Lastly, Stevenson chose ideal names to suit and describe the personalities or actions of his characters. Just as Hyde hides in Jekyll, "Je kyll" hides in "Jekyll." In French, "Je" means I and "kyll" probably