exam 2 for exercise physiology

2356 WordsMar 7, 201410 Pages
PET 3351 Exercise Physiology Second Exam Review (Fall 2012) Chapter IV: The Physiological Basis of Muscular Strength and Flexibility 1. Strength is operationally defined as the maximal force that can be exerted in a single effort. Using this definition, strength should be assessed using one repetition maximum (1 RM), though we often estimate strength using tests that may involve multiple repetitions. 2. In strength training and rehabilitation, emphasis should be given to both the concentric and eccentric phases of the movement. During the concentric phase, the muscle shortens from a lengthened position and during the eccentric phase the muscle lengthens from a shortened position. For example, in the execution of the…show more content…
For example many people will show an improvement in strength from the first session to the second session. This improvement is due to CNS adaptation because there is no hypertrophic gain during this short period. Another example which proves the importance of CNS adaptations related to strength gains is that strength performance may increase by 30% while hypertrophic gains may only be 15%, thus half of the strength gains is attributable to CNS adaptations. Generally in the first few months of strength training CNS adaptations account for a larger percentage of the strength gain than hypertrophic adaptations. To illustrate the importance of CNS adaptations in the early part of training, it should be noted that electrical stimulation can increase the rate of strength gains. Hypertrophy is an important factor in improved strength performance. Strength training brings about an increase in the size and number of myofibrils. It is speculated that during and following a high intensity strength training session the neuroendocrine responses will bring about an increased amino acid uptake and will increase the rate of protein synthesis. Optimal hypertrophic gains require adequate recovery between workouts to permit the rate of protein synthesis to exceed the rate of protein degradation. It should also be noted that strength training also stimulates bone and
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