first aid

2113 Words Dec 2nd, 2013 9 Pages
Describe the common types of fractures
There are two types of fracture called open and closed. A closed fracture is where the skin is unbroken, but the internal damage to surrounding tissue can be seen as swelling. An open fracture has a wound. The bone may or may not be protruding. There is also internal damage to surrounding tissue.

Describe how to manage a fracture.
A casualty with a fracture needs to keep still and not move the injured part. The treatment for a closed fracture is to reduce the risk of further injury by preventing the casualty from moving the fracture and to get medical help. You need to:
1. Support the injured limb
2. Immobilise the affected part
3. Dial 999 or 112 for an ambulance
4. Treat for shock.
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Compression of the brain
Compression of the brain – a condition called cerebral compression – is very serious and almost invariably requires surgery. Cerebral compression occurs when there is a build-up of pressure on the brain. This pressure may be due to one of several different causes, such as an accumulation of blood within the skull or swelling of injured brain tissues. Cerebral compression is usually caused by a head injury. However, it can also be due to other causes, such as stroke, infection, or a brain tumour. The condition may develop immediately after a head injury, or it may appear a few hours or even days later. For this reason, you should always try to find out whether the casualty has a recent history of a head injury.
• Deteriorating level of response – casualty may become unconscious.
There may also be:
• history of a recent head injury
• intense headache
• noisy breathing, becoming slow
• slow, yet full and strong pulse
• unequal pupil size
• weakness and/or paralysis down one side of the face of body
• high temperature; flushed face
• drowsiness
• Noticeable change in personality or behaviour, such as irritability or disorientation.
Your aim
• To arrange urgent removal of the casualty to hospital.
• Dial 999 for an ambulance.
If the casualty is conscious:
• keep them supported in a comfortable resting position and reassure them
• Regularly monitor and record vital signs – level of response, pulse, and breathing – until

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